Breeding the breed of black chickens began to engage in Spain. On Minorca island there were many specimens of these birds. Breeders have begun to actively work on this genetic material. Scientists in Britain continued their research, further cultivating the Minorcan breed of chickens. The description of the course of the experiment shows that they wanted to breed the breed rather obese, but the expectations of the breeders did not materialize. But they were not very upset, as the eggs and chicken meat were of high quality. The egg production level of this breed was also high.
American scientists conducted a review of the Minorca breed of chickens, the complete characterization of these birds satisfied their needs. They proved that the hens justify their content in the winter. There are an incredible amount of eggs throughout the year.
Different breed of chickens Minorca description of the appearance of the other breeds. She is extremely attractive. It would seem that the plumage is just black, but in the sunlight it shimmers in a green tint. Unfortunately, this is impossible to see in the photos. Brightness is present in the color of the comb, and in amazing white earrings. In appearance, they are a beautiful smooth oval. Rooster's scallop leans slightly to the side. The tail is well developed, has a rather elongated appearance. The hen is small in size, has a small, elegant head with a red face in front. The eyes are brown in color. Wide chest and back, as well as powerful wings give this small breed a certain grandeur and pride of posture. The legs are strong and long.
These birds are very mobile. They are quite shy and are wary of everything new. She does not want to contact a person, in any way, the owner will not be able to take her in his arms. Admire and have to observe from afar. But the breeders will appreciate the fact that they get along well with other breeds and behave peacefully in the pen.
Another interesting fact is that, in addition to black color, there are still individuals with white and variegated colors. Although they are quite rare. In the minor chickens, the white description of the appearance is exactly the same, only the front of the head is yellow, not red, and the beak is yellowish.
Conditions of detention
Before you buy, you should familiarize yourself with the conditions of detention and carefully prepare the chicken coop for a breed of Minorca hens. Content specifications can be read in advance. The coop must be warmed, dry, without drafts. The open-air cage should also be free; it is better to make a shelter from the rain and cover it from the strong wind. A weak spot in winter is scallops. Experienced razvodchiki advise to lubricate their fat in the winter. This will save them from frostbite. In the chicken coop also equipped with high perches (75 cm from the floor level).
Professional poultry farmers believe that Minorca is a breed of chickens, the breeding and maintenance of which can cause a lot of difficulties. But it’s worth a try, since chickens rush well, their eggs are beautiful, large, shine like polished. Buyers really appreciate the eggs of this breed. Yes, and the meat is distinguished by its pleasant taste, and the structure of the body suggests that the chicken has a big brisket and long, long legs.
In order to choose good layers, the selection of chickens is done very early. The following sample is made in appearance. In males, the scallop grows at the age of 5 months. Then all females are taken, which already begin to lay eggs from this age. The first year you can collect up to 180 eggs. Egg weight reaches 70-80 g, they are white and beautifully shine. Under good conditions and proper nutrition, layers can lay eggs in the winter.
For breeding offspring, eggs are selected only from those hens that give eggs for the second year. But the incubation instinct of their eggs is poorly developed, so the best option would be to purchase an incubator. Chickens grow very quickly, at an early age are covered with feathers, in food unpretentious.
Breeders use the Minorca breed of chickens, its description and merit, for breeding and improving new breeds such as leggorn. In specialized breeding institutes they are kept as a breeding reserve. Scientists continue to work with them on breeding.
When planning a food ration for Minorcan breeds, a description of the content can be found in the special literature. However, it can be noted that they do not need a special diet. The babies are fed with grated grain, adding, as usual, finely chopped egg. Then chopped greens are added to the chicken ration. Yeast is also added for rapid growth. It is useful for them to give vegetables, for example, beets, potatoes, carrots. From cereals, wheat bran can be added to the diet. Useful bone meal or finely chopped bones. Thanks to this feed, chickens quickly grow.
Adults to chickens, especially laying hens, are supplemented with vitamins. They need food with easily digestible protein. Used for feeding ready-made, properly selected feed. They are bought for farm birds. The content of this finished food includes many trace elements and vitamins, which are selected by the best specialists. In order for food to digest better in the stomach, like other breeds, small pebbles or sand are added to the minor. It helps to grind hard grains.
This breed has three subspecies: Spanish, British and dwarf. The Spanish breed of Minorca chickens has a standard description, that is, black, white earrings, a red front part of the head and a light beak. The British breed of chickens has a different appearance description. It is white with white earrings, but the front of the head is yellow and the beak has a yellowish tint. Minorca dwarf breed of chickens was bred long ago as a result of selection. In the course of the experiment a small breed was obtained. The breeders decided to correct the mistake and increase the size of the chicken, but were afraid that the quality of poultry meat would deteriorate and affect the egg production rate. Dwarf breed is very rare, is considered an almost lost species.
Minorca also have a great similarity with black Plymouth chickens, longshans. With the Spanish white-faced has the similarity of earrings, but the Spanish size has more white ovals. Chickens also have differences. A white patina on the front of the head is considered the norm in the Spanish white-faced, but if such a thing happens in the minores, it already speaks of a deviation from the norm. In terms of the number of eggs laid during the year, the Minorca resembles another fertile breed, more common in our country - leggorn.
If you are looking for great laying hens, then you need to purchase a Minorca breed of chickens. Description, reviews of private owners, containing this breed, only confirm this. Up to 200 eggs can be collected from one laying hen per year.
This is a very high figure. With proper maintenance and good feeding, they rush in summer and winter. The weight of the chicken reaches 3 kg, the weight of the rooster is more, up to 4 kg. The cleaner the standard form of the chicken, the breed is not mixed, the more eggs the chicken produces.
Advantages and disadvantages of the breed
The main advantages of the breed, of course, are fertility. Early start to carry eggs, from 5 months. They are big and nutritious. Layers give eggs all year round. The meat is white and rather tasty. Yes, and in the yard they do not quarrel with other birds. Nestlings are born strong enough and develop rapidly. Have a good percentage of preservation.
Among the shortcomings can be emphasized its caution, fearfulness and unwillingness to communicate with people. Also in winter they are very afraid of the cold. And it is difficult to call them good mothers. Since this is an artificially bred breed, they do not observe maternal instinct. Chicks have to be grown in incubators.
Reviews of Russian breeders
According to the experience of our breeders, the minors are sensitive to moisture. In rainy and foggy weather it is better not to let them out from the house. Also in a dark and low-lit room, cocks produce thin ridges. Minoroc is bad when it's cold and when it's warm. When selecting, it is advised to find fault with the color, so that there are no stains, plaque of other shades. Experienced breeders even carefully consider the color of the claws. It is also advised to have a large walking distance. The more walking space, the better the egg production.
But, despite all the pros and cons, the Minorcan hens are worthy of the attention of private breeders. Decorative and beautiful birds will decorate your yard, and the number of eggs will be pleasantly pleased.
The origin of the breed
The island of Menorca in Spain became the birthplace of black stilt chickens, whose popularity grew rapidly after seafarers delivered birds of this breed to England. English breeders were delighted with the attractive appearance of roosters and chickens, and also appreciated the white, large eggs and very tasty meat of medium-sized poultry.
The tender and juicy taste of meat was so much liked that attempts were made to make the minories larger, surging them with the blood of beef poultry. But the breeders did not achieve success in this, but they bred three varieties of Minorca, differing in the color of their plumage and the size of adult individuals.
Russian poultry farmers received a Minorca as a gift from the Turkish Sultan, who more than two hundred years ago imported several birds of this breed to Russia. For two centuries, the minorok bred solely in private farms, as some of the shortcomings inherent in this breed, make unprofitable industrial breeding in conditions of poultry farms.
Breed description, appearance and photos
The breed standard of the domestic minorca was developed at the beginning of the twentieth century. Minorca is black, as is white minor - a graceful, small bird, high-legged, with an oval body shape and a spectacular head. The snow-white large earrings resembling a pigeon egg give a special charm and appeal to the representatives of the breed. Earrings and a high, large comb, are among the important breed traits.
- The body is small, with an elongated body and a wide chest, a long, straight, proud neck. The skin on the torso is white. The tail hollow down, continuing the line of the back. The wings are strong, muscular.
- Legs are thin, tall, black.
- The head is large, proportionate, very elegant, with a red face, black beak and brown eyes. The earlobes are small, white, earrings are large, oval, snow-white.
- The crest of the cock is very large, leafy, standing. In hens, the crest hangs to the side.
- The plumage is very smooth, dense and shiny, black or white with pronounced silver. On the neck, feathers are long, straight; tail tail is smooth, long at the cock.
- Vices are the presence of curling feathers on the neck, a pink-shaped comb, a color other than the pedigree, too large. Small or dwarf chickens and cockerels of this breed are considered dwarf minorcae and are not subject to crossing with full-sized representatives of the breed.
Under ideal conditions, a bird of this breed begins to rush at five months of age, but in the first year of life, egg production is no more than one hundred and twenty snow-white eggs. In the second year, the hen reaches a maximum egg production of one hundred and eighty eggs, weighing 55-60 grams, and it is also recommended to select eggs for incubation of only two year old birds.
Such selectivity is associated with the relatively late formation of the skeleton of the bird, as well as with the achievement of the best state of health. To adulthood, the bird reaches and maximum weight: in chickens it varies from two to two and a half kilograms, an adult rooster reaches three kilograms.
We offer to get acquainted with other miniature breeds of chickens:
Spanish guests, Minorca remain even after two hundred years of heat-loving breed. Adult birds suffer from drafts and dampness, they do not tolerate cold winds and severe frosts. When overcooling is always affected, in the first place, a large scallop, which is an indicator of health.Minorca - heat-loving chicken and can not stand the dampness and drafts.
In the cold climate of central Russia, in Siberia, in a highly continental climate, chickens of this breed can be kept only in the presence of a warm, closed coop. In the southern regions of the country, it is enough to keep minorocas in the main house without heating, but with the ability to place the bird in a warm room during the period of severe winter cold.
Comfortable conditions of maintenance of the vital adult bird, since the survival of the minorok at the age of one to three is eighty-seven percent. This figure depends entirely on how protected the bird is from cold.
But a warm minorok house should also be protected from excessive noise. Minorca is very similar in character to the wild birdthey are timid and fearful, do not tolerate the presence of people and animals. The chicken coop with a walking range should be located in a secluded corner of the yard, to be protected from street noise. An excellent protection for the open-air cage is a hedge, covering the view of the yard or the street to the bird, as well as serving as a kind of wall against wind and dust.Comfortable conditions of maintenance are vital for adult birds.
Minorca caution and fearfulness does not apply to birds of another species or another breed. Chickens get along well with other inhabitants of the poultry yard, cocks do not conflict with turkeys or geese.
Minorok feeding ration
The minorok family that have reached the age of one year old can be given both ready-made, concentrated feeds and ordinary crushed maize and wheat as feed. Birds of this breed have no particular preferences. they are almost omnivorous and well digest high-protein feed in the form of wet mash.
If it is not possible to purchase crushed cereals or mixed fodder, it is possible to feed whole grains of wheat and corn to the adult bird as the main ration.
Experienced owners prefer to mix cereal feed with boiled vegetables, which can be up to fifty percent of the total amount of food. Boiled potatoes, carrots, any other root vegetables, the crook of apples and pears - all this is mixed in the mash, but hard kinds of vegetables and fruits must be crushed beforehand.Minorca unpretentious diet.
The Minorca Pumpkin is the perfect food.: an orange vegetable is rich in vitamins, the pumpkin can be stored until the spring, it is happy to peck chicken in raw or grated form.
Peculiarities of breeding in private homestead
Since the main minorok breeders are the owners of small private farmsteads, the purity of the breed depends on the conditions of the breeding bird. The family of tribal minories, consisting of one rooster and five to six chickens, are kept in the period preceding the selection of eggs for incubation, separate from the other bird. This is an important feature, especially if there are other breed roosters in the compound.
In addition, the diet of the breeding bird is usually different from the daily menu of the inhabitants of the house. Meat or fish boiled waste, whey, and shell are added to the feed. If possible, the bird is given sunflower oil or oilcake, and premixes are added to the breeding bird. Such feeding allows to increase egg production and fertility of eggs, reduce early death of chickens.The family of tribal minorokas are chickens and rooster, not related to each other by blood relationship.
One of the conditions for the successful breeding of minorocas in a private sector is the purchase of an incubator (for example, a B-1 Bird and a B-2 Bird) or a chickens search. Chickens of this breed do not hatch eggs., therefore, in order to get breeding young animals, an incubator is needed. Modern incubators are designed for a large number of eggs, and if only one family of the breed bird lives in the farmstead, the chicks can be bred under a turkey or hen of another breed of chicken.
Important! The family of tribal minorokas are chickens and rooster, not related to each other by blood relationship. The cockerel must be from another nest.
The main disadvantages of the breed are:
- The heat loving birds. Minoroc health and egg production directly depend on the conditions of detention. Minoroc is impossible to contain, like most other breeds of chickens, as the adult bird quickly gets frostbite of the scallop with a slight decrease in temperature, and also falls ill.
- Shyness It is impossible to make friends with the Minorca, they do not perceive the owner as a friend, they get scared and run away at the sight of a person.
- Difficulty in breeding chickens. Minorca do not incubate eggs, therefore, to obtain chicks from breeding eggs, it is necessary to purchase an incubator or hen.
Vitaly F. Minorca has long liked, but it could not get exactly the black variety. Recently bought two chickens and a rooster, on the tribe. Очень красивые, просто удивительно, какие крупные гребешки, все соседи ходили смотреть. Яйца несут крупные, вкусные, но вот жалко, в руки не даются, как войдешь в курятник – сразу с паникой вспархивают. Только ночью можно в руки взять.
Евгения С. My parents have a whole herd of minoras, they are bred for more than fifteen years, they exchange chicks and adult birds with the same keen poultry farmers. In addition to beauty, these chickens provide eggs not only our three families, but still remains for sale. Old birds are chopped for meat, even if the meat is harsh, but still very tasty, and the broth is generally delicious. The whole breeding bird lives in a large warm house, in the fall and in the spring it walks in the garden.
The hens of this breed are genetically descended from the birds of the Spanish “nationality”. The name of the breed has from the island of Minorca, belonging to the Spanish territories: actually, from where it originates.
The progenitor of the species is the Castilian black chicken that lived on this island. In the 19th century, the bird was taken to England, where scientists began to select on the basis of this species.
On the video - what a chicken looks like:
As a result of the collective work of European and American scientists, three species of the Minorca breed were bred:
- black spanish
- white british
- dwarf german.
In Russia, the first representatives of this breed appeared in 1885, and after a short time they became very popular due to their remarkable productive characteristics.
Interestingly, all three species have their own characteristic external features: it is impossible to confuse them with each other. Further we will tell about it in more detail.
This bird has a characteristic black plumage with a brilliant tint and a bright red comb. It is not surprising that this version is called Spanish - most of all the bird resembles a dancer of the national flamenco.
The chicken has white lobes and bright red to match the comb earrings. All this further enhances the decorative appearance of the bird. Eye color - black or dark brown. The body is strong, elongated, with a rooster it is crowned with a magnificent tail. All adult hens - 2.5 kg, the rooster will “pull” 3 kg. But what the Cochin Cochin looks like, and what eggs it carries, is detailed in the article.
It should be noted that representatives of this breed line are rare birds. Even in their homeland, in Spain, they are almost on the verge of extinction. The government of the country even had to take the birds under its care, as a valuable gene pool.
When the hens of the hen begin to trot, and what result can be achieved will help to understand the information on the link.
But why chickens do not rush in the winter, and what can be done with this problem is detailed in the article.
It will also be interesting to find out whether it is possible to feed laying hens with boiled potatoes: //gidfermer.com/pticy/kury/kak-pravilno-kormit-kur-nesushek-i-chem.html
How Pavlovsky chickens look like, and how to properly raise them for best results, can be understood by clicking on the link.
This species of breed has, in contrast to the first, snow-white plumage. And the feathers also have a beautiful ebb - silver.
Characteristic for all types of leafy crest in this case has pronounced teeth. Interestingly, sometimes the crest of the white English Minorca may also have a pinkish shape - and this is not considered a defect in the breed. The lobes are also white, the earrings are red: this combination looks beautiful against the snow-white elegant plumage.
As for the physique, it is almost identical to the Spanish version. The weight of an adult female is from 2.7 to 3 kg, and the rooster can reach 4 kg or more (as in the Plymouthrok chicken).
This hybrid has outstanding decorative qualities. The bird is very graceful, has an original appearance, which is highly appreciated by judges at various exhibitions. All adult chicken in this case - 800 grams, on average, and the rooster - about 1 kg.
For all representatives of this breed, the crest is of great importance in determining the purity of the exterior. In thoroughbred pedigree birds comb bright red, fleshy, having from five to seven pronounced teeth. In a rooster, the comb has a strictly vertical shape, while in females this “decoration” is usually shifted to the side, and has much smaller dimensions.
For the purpose of obtaining eggs and meat, Spanish and British breeds are usually grown. Dwarf is a decorative variety, its productive characteristics are small.
The first two species have very high egg production rates: chickens are able to lay eggs as early as five months old. In the year one individual brings about 160 eggs: it should be noted that the eggs of these hens are quite large. First-year chickens are more productive than second-year chickens - an average of 20 eggs per year. The shell has a white color, the weight of the eggs can reach 80 grams. To improve and increase the number of eggs, it is important to understand what should be the norms of feeding laying hens at home.
It is important to note that chickens rush regardless of the season, diet change or some other reasons. The survival rate of chickens at their breeding is almost 100%. Note that the hens of this breed are bad mothers, so they do not want to sit on eggs. Consequently, chick breeding is only possible in an incubator.
Poultry meat has excellent taste and nutritional characteristics: it is tender, juicy, low-fat. The product has a pronounced white color without impurities, it has excellent dietary indicators. Therefore, the Minorca chicken is a combined breed: it can produce a sufficient number of eggs per year, and at the same time it also has high-quality, valuable meat.
Additionally, we note that the birds are rather shy, have a somewhat nervous nature. In the hands of the chicken almost did not take, but with other individuals in the poultry yard, it gets along fine.
For industrial breeding, these birds are not very suitable, since the requirements for their content are too peculiar: you cannot fit the standard. But for small and medium-sized private farmsteads they are what they need.
Birds are very thermophilic, and very sensitive to damp, winds and other natural phenomena. It is best to breed minor chickens in a warm climate zone, or at least in the middle lane. For the northern regions and Siberia, they fit a little.
Birds are shy, hard to adapt to the new environment. It is also better for them not to change the diet radically, and if necessary, simply replace one food gradually with another.
Chickens of this breed are bad mothers, and they won't hatch eggs. In addition, the birds can not only sit out, but even eat the eggs. Therefore, if you want to breed chickens, you will have to get an incubator.
It will also be helpful to know whether a hen can lay eggs without a rooster.
You need to know that the breed is thermophilic, so in the winter in a cold coop it can not survive. There have been cases that birds froze their earrings or lobes. In order to avoid such a problem, it is necessary to warm the henhouses for the winter from all sides, and experienced farmers also advise to grease the vulnerable areas of the birds with grease to avoid frostbite.
The minimum temperature that a minorcan chicken can endure without compromising its health and productivity is + 8-10 degrees.
In the video - the condition of keeping chickens: