[ads4]Nandina - this is truly an amazing plant. Throughout the year, it pleases the eye with a diverse palette of shades, in which its foliage is colored.
Only the boldest flower growers they dare to acquire this rare plant: the colorful beauty is capricious and requires special attention.
However, it is possible to agree with the eastern guest providing her necessary conditions.
Nandina or in Latin Nandina - is an evergreen tree belonging to the barberry family.
Nandina is the only representative of the genus and is referred to as nandina home or Nandina domestica. Under natural conditions, this plant can be found on the mountain slopes of China and Japan.
In the open ground Nandina can grow only in a subtropical climate. In temperate latitudes, it is grown as a kadochnoy plant that adorns summer gardens and home greenhouses.
Thanks to the numerous basal shootsNandina grows in the form of a dense bush. The color of its direct little-branch shoots is changeable. In young plants, it is brown-purple in color, and in adults it acquires a gray-brown hue.
Large leaves up to 40 cm long are located on the upper parts of the stems.
Nandina is most valued for the color of its leaves. varies with season. In summer, the foliage is colored pure green, and by the fall it becomes saturated red-green shades. In the spring, the leaves turn brown, and by the summer they return to the original green color.
Small white and pink nandina flowers collected in large racemes.
Flowering begins in June, after which on a bush clusters of small bright red fruits are tied, which are another decoration of the plant.
Through the efforts of breeders, the Nandina varieties are home-grown with pink and red leaves. You can also find small-leaved, variegated and dwarf forms of the plant.
- Nana Purpurea - bush with bright purple foliage,
- Firepower and Compacta - dwarf varieties,
- Alba - variety with white berries,
- Harbor dwarf - form with bright red leaves.
Nandina is grown in large tubs and for the summer period, if possible, shall be taken out in the garden. In winter, the plant is brought into the house, where it is kept in a cool room.
In the indoor environment contain plant quite difficult. Nandin requires high humidity and it does not tolerate heat.
The choice of location and temperature
Nandina prefers bright diffused light. From May to the first frost, it is advisable to place it in the partial shade of the garden or veranda. In room conditions, it is best to place the plant near the eastern or southern window.
Nandina Leaves acquire a rich red color only in bright light. In addition, in a bright room the plant is less sick.
Optimal temperature for plants in the summer - about 20 °C. In winter, the nandin requires the coolest room with a temperature of 10 to 12 ° C. Such wintering is very important for plant health.
Grow nandinu recommended only for florists who have the opportunity to provide her with cool conditions in the winter season.
Watering and moisture
In the summer of Nandina plentifully watered as the top layer of soil dries. In winter, watering decreases with decreasing temperature. Wherein should be avoided full drying of the soil.
Water should be used soft and well-settled. Water softener You can add a little citric acid.
High humidity is important condition for nandina wellness. A tub with a plant can be put on a wet-filled pallet or placed near a water source.
In addition to this, preferably twice a day. spray the leaves of nandina soft water that does not contain chlorine and lime. Spraying is canceled during wintering.
Soil composition and transplanting
For plants required loose and permeable soil with acidity pH 3.7 - 6.4. It is advisable to compose the soil yourself from the following components:
- 1 part of humus or peat,
- 1 part of turf land,
- 0.5 parts of perlite or coarse sand
- 1 piece of leafy ground.
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Young nandin every spring transplanted into a container 2 or 3 cm more than before. Wherein root neck does not deepen, and part of the roots is trimmed. Three-year and older nandin bushes need a transplant every 2 or 3 years. New tub is important to provide a thick layer of drainage.
From spring to mid-autumn Nandina twice a month fed with alternation organic and mineral fertilizers through irrigation. You can also use fertilizer for bonsai.
Nandin Shoots do not branch and pinching is not able to stimulate the growth of side branches. Therefore, with all the desire Nandin impossible to give the shape of a tree.
However in the spring it is recommended to cut old stems that are more than 180 cm tall, to get a good growth of young shoots.
Along the perimeter of the nandina can be cut off part of the trunks. This will help to form a compact bush from the plant. Also for decorative The nandins should be promptly removed from the leaves that dry at the bottom of the bush, which it sheds as it develops.
Nandina breeds in the following ways:
- Seedsthat are planted in separate containers to a depth of about 1.5 cm in a “greenhouse” with a temperature not lower than 20 ° C. With the emergence of seedlings capacity transferred to a lighter place. After a month, it is desirable to feed the seedlings with complex fertilizer. As they grow, the young nandins are transplanted into larger pots.
- Apical cuttings. Cuttings about 8 cm long rooted in the peat-sand mixture. Before rooting, the lower two leaves are removed, and the cut is processed by “Korneovin”. The container with the handle is placed in the “greenhouse” in which the temperature is maintained from 15 to 20 ° C. Rooting occurs from 1.5 to 3 months.
Pests and common problems
Nandina's dangerous enemies:
Need to remove pests were found with a soapy sponge, and the plant treated with insecticide.
Due to the stagnation of moisture in the soil Nandina can be affected root rot. It is necessary to remove the rotten roots, treat the rest of the fungicide and transplant the plant into a new tub with fresh soil.
- Dries and fall to pour - low humidity in the hot season.
- Pale green leaves - insufficient lighting.
- Dry edges and middle of the leaves - sunburn.
- Yellow leaves - lack of iron and magnesium in alkaline soil.
- Weak young shoots grow - poor lighting or few nutrients.
- Yellow and fall lower leaves - natural aging.
Needless to say, demanding nandina delivers a lot of trouble. The most difficult - This is to provide her with suitable conditions in the winter. But the bright beauty of the Nandina is worth all the efforts of the diligent florist.
The plant is very fond of moisture, so regular spraying is mandatory for it. You can put a pot with nandina on a tray, from which moisture from moss or expanded clay will evaporate, but the bottom should not be placed directly in the water.
In spring and summer, nandin should be watered well, after drying the soil surface. With the onset of cold weather, watering is reduced, so as not to overcool the root system.
Fertilizers and fertilizers
In spring and summer, when Nandina grows intensively, it is fed with liquid complex fertilizers for house flowers 2 times a month.
At a young age, the plant requires a transplant each year in spring. Mature representatives are transplanted less frequently, at intervals of 3–4 years, with annual soil sprinkled on top. Ground mixture for nandin can be mixed from equal parts of sand, turf and leaf soils.
Nandina home, or "Sacred Bamboo"
One of the most picturesque and colorful oriental shrubs in room culture is home nandia. This is a unique plant with very spectacular leaves and curly crown, from whose beauty you can not take your eyes off. The particular charm of the foliage gets in the cold season, when its colors change as if by the whim of the watercolor artist. Even the love of coolness does not prevent this plant from becoming more and more popular. Nandinu rightfully ranked as an elite species of indoor plants. This capricious wonder plant is not for everyone, it loves attention and care.
Nandina - "sacred bamboo" and its spectacular change of colors
Among indoor plants, the Nandina simply has no competitors. In the ranks of evergreen cultures spectacular watercolor colors with such carved foliage - a rarity. Unique, elite, capricious, rare, exclusive - as nandin do not name, all the epithets will be justified. In our country, and in the West, the plant is very popularly called “sacred bamboo”. And this beautiful name perfectly conveys the special beauty of this luxurious shrub in every sense. But it also causes quite a bit of confusion: neither by its characteristic features, nor by the origin of the nandina have anything to do with bamboos and were given this nickname presumably for their tendency to release root shoots, for their thin stems and the similar form of complex leaves.
This charming shrub in nature is found only in Japan and China. It is therefore not surprising that he is considered one of the most eastern in appearance. Owned by Nandina home ( Nandina domestica ) to the Barbaris family.
What nandina cannot boast of is diversity. The genus Nandina is represented by a single species of ornamental shrubs. But the lack of diverse forms does not make this indoor plant boring. First, on sale it is represented by varieties differing in leaf color, flowering and berries. Secondly, even the most modest Nandina still seems outlandish perfection.
Nandina home (Nandina domestica) - evergreen shrubs, less often - compact trees, even in nature limited to a maximum height of 4-5 m, and in room culture they rarely grow to one meter (dwarf varieties are mostly for sale). Nandina is distinguished by its practically non-branching, straight, thin shoots and compact, shallow root system. Her crown is airy, graphic, stunningly elegant. However, this does not prevent the plant from actively releasing numerous root shoots. Even the bark of the Nandina is very picturesque. Changing the color from lilac-beige to grayish-brown, showing off its longitudinal grooves, it conquers with its muted dullness. Nandins are grown in the form of indoor shrubs with a thick picturesque crown or in the form of bonsai.
The main pride of the house nandina is luxurious carved foliage. Three times or twice the feathery, complex sheets of this beauty grow up to 40 cm in length, although from a distance it is not easy to examine their structure, the crown seems so openwork-uniform. Triangular leaves consist of glossy, rhombic, feather-like lobes, the pointed tip of which perfectly emphasizes the elegance of the plant. The dense texture of the leaves does not prevent the whole plant from looking very light and lush. Nandina is perceived from afar as a small-leaf culture, but the shares of feathery leaves grow to 10 cm in length. Elegance is emphasized by a long petiole of leaves (up to 15 cm) and petioles reaching 3 cm in length, which give the crown lightness.
The color range of foliage in this unusual indoor shrub fascinates. The watercolor show of plants is fully manifested in the cold season, but some “previews” can be observed all year round. Young leaves with their subdued-red, brick-brown tone gradually change color to dark green, as if red with time gradually eroded by the base color. Despite the status of an evergreen plant, nandina changes colors depending on the season. In the fall, the watercolor show begins, during which the leaves are gradually and unevenly repainted in dazzling red-ruby tones, and the “transitional” shades look extraordinarily attractive. In winter, Nandina looks like a bright crimson miracle, slowly and unevenly begins to grow brown and yellow. But the change to the brown scale does not indicate that the plant will soon lose its leaves: the closer to spring, the stronger the green color appears and the leaves are repainted again, so that reddish young leaves sparkle on their background. The whole development of the plant is underlined by the water-color repainting game, and it is this trait that makes home nandin a so unique plant. And so luxuriously-colorful nandina has numerous varieties with variegated, intensely red, purple, multi-color.
But the wonder of the color crown is not the only talent of the plant. With proper wintering, the plant also blooms. Lace blooming begins in June and lasts only a few weeks. The small flowers are surprisingly original: the white sepals are tilted back, emphasizing the six massive stamens around the pistil. Despite its small size, the flowers are very beautiful. But even more surprising is the size of the inflorescences: unusual flowers are collected in very large and translucent openwork panicles of inflorescences, whose length can exceed 30 cm. After flowering, large dazzling berries are tied, gradually acquiring a scarlet-ruby color. Fruits with a pointed tip with a diameter of up to 1 cm on this plant look like luxurious beads.
Nandina home "Manon" (Nandina domestica ‘Manon’)
Growing room nandina growing conditions
When exalting the beauty of Nandin, there is no question of exaggeration. This plant has no equal. But out of capriciousness, it deserves the title of exceptional sissy. Nandina is not just a plant not for everyone: it is extremely demanding in terms of humidity, consistently intense illumination and temperatures even in the warm season. And it can be recommended only to experienced flower growers who are looking for an exclusive decoration of their collection. The requirements of the plant to the conditions does not change regardless of the form of cultivation, it is typical for both bush nandin and bonsai.
Nandina lighting and placement
Room nandinam need to carefully select a place. For this plant, you need to choose a stable environment, and the lighting should remain unchanged throughout the year. The light-loving nature of a plant requires the selection of appropriate places on the windowsills or the provision of additional lighting. Direct sunlight, with the exception of soft morning and evening, this beauty is contraindicated, the lighting should be bright, but diffused. In the autumn-winter period, the nandin must be finished in order to preserve the habitual mode of the plant. Nandina responds well to artificial lighting.
Home Nandina feels great on the western and eastern window-sills, at the windows and glass windows, and it is suitable for bright lounges or lobbies. But best of all, Nandina feels in winter gardens with controlled conditions.
Temperature conditions for nandina and airing
Regardless of the time of year and stage of development, the house nandina remains a lover of coolness. Of course, in the summer it is not kept in conditions atypical for rooms, but you should not let it rise above 20 degrees. With a temperature range of 18 to 20 degrees, the plant retains a high decorative effect and always only pleases.
During the winter, the nandin is moved to cooler rooms. Comfortable for this plant is considered the temperature from 7 to 13 degrees Celsius, short-term cooling is acceptable.
Nandins love fresh air, frequent airing and will happily spend the summer in a garden in protected places. It is better to protect the plant from drafts. Nandin can be grown as a garden kadochnoy plant.
Nandina House Twilight (Nandina domestica ‘Twilight’)
Nandina Watering and Humidity
The correct schedule of irrigation for nandiny easy to pick up. The plant is watered so that between procedures the top layer of the substrate dries out in tanks. In summer, watering should be abundant, but not frequent. In winter, they are reduced, focusing on how the soil dries. Full drying earthen coma can not be allowed. Particular attention should be paid to the quality of water: Nandina prefers soft settled water of the same temperature with the air in the room or a little warmer. For the nandina, it is permissible to improve the water by the acidification method.
The main condition under which you can grow nandin in living rooms and even in winter gardens - high humidity. Nandin is preferably grown with a fixed air humidifier. At the same time, it is not at all necessary to use special devices: there is enough a pallet or a second container filled with wet decorative stones, moss or expanded clay. At the same time, any contact with the water of the bottom of the pot with the plant and the stagnation of water in the lower part of the pots are absolutely unacceptable.
It is better to supplement the installation of the humidifier in spring and summer with regular spraying. При содержании в прохладе опрыскивания проводят аккуратно.For the nandina, you can only use soft, distilled or purified, warm water and a fine spray.
Top dressing of a nandina and structure of fertilizers
Home nandin feed up with a standard frequency. Fertilizers for this plant are applied only from March to September. The optimal frequency is 1 time in 2 weeks. In the autumn-winter period, both shrub and bandai nandins are fed up, guided by the instructions received at the time of purchase or by reducing the dosage and frequency of fertilizers by half.
For the nandina, it is desirable to select a comprehensive, universal fertilizer. This crop prefers liquid dressings and does not like long-acting fertilizers. If Nandina is grown in the form of bonsai, then special fertilizer blends are used for it.
Nandina home “Gulf Stream” (Nandina domestica ‘Gulf Stream’)
Trimming and shaping room nandina
Cutting this indoor plant, with the exception of growing in the form of bonsai, is not needed. The absence of dense branching, thin, straight and graceful shoots will not allow the crown to thicken when pinching, and when targeted pruning. The release of a large number of young shoots stimulate shortened by a third of the oldest branches, and their cutting with a frequency of 1 every 3-4 years, control the size and rejuvenate the bush. The formation of bonsai is most often reduced to exposing the lower part of the shoots, limiting the size of the plant by removing the shoots and part of the trunks. Nandin easier to buy already formed, rather than give it a style and shape later.
The only compulsory measure is the regular removal of old drying leaves, which the plant does not always dump on its own from below.
Transplant and substrate for nandina
It is necessary to change capacities for a plant only when the previous pot is completely mastered. Young nandin transplanted annually, but for adults enough transplant 1 time in 3 or even 4 years. In the years when the transplant is not performed, the top layer of the substrate must be replaced with a fresh one.
Nandins are usually grown in large tubs or large pots with an equal aspect ratio, increasing capacity by several centimeters.
For the house nandina, a versatile, loose and light ground mix is selected. Perfect substrate for decorative leafy plants. If you mix the soil yourself, then you can use a substrate of equal parts of sand, turf and leaf soil. For soil reaction, the culture is undemanding, it feels good in the soil with a pH from 4 to 6.5, but a slightly acidic soil is still preferable for it.
Transplantation is carried out without exposing the roots, with minimal contact and removal of the upper layer of contaminated substrate. At the bottom of the containers, a high drainage layer with a thickness of at least 6 cm for classic pots and about 1/3 of the height of the containers for bonsaisers is necessarily laid. The root neck of the plant can not be buried in the soil. If necessary, you can limit the volume of the root system, cutting it to a more compact size.
Nandina home bonsai
Nandina diseases and pests
Nandins are fairly stable, but with improper care may suffer from spider mites or aphids. It is better to fight pests with insecticides.
Mosaic blotch is common among these plants and is easily noticed by specific yellow spots on the leaves. Most often, the plants are infected before purchase. To combat this problem is better systemic fungicide.
Common problems in growing:
- dropping foliage at temperatures above 20 degrees,
- partial or complete loss of leaves in dry air,
- spots on the leaves when exposed to sunlight
- yellowing of leaves when watered with hard water, lack of iron or magnesium,
- blanching leaves in low light and in the absence of dressings,
- stretching shoots and growing weak branches in poor light.
Agrotechnics for indoor growing Nandina
- Lighting and selection of places. If you grow a plant there is a place with bright light, but without the direct rays of the sun, then it is most suitable for Nandin. That is, the location is preferred western or eastern. On the southern direction will have to arrange shading from light curtains or gauze curtains. In spring and summer, you can put Nandin in the garden or on the balcony, but make sure that in the summer afternoon the plant is protected from the disastrous streams of ultraviolet radiation. In winter, additional illumination with fluorescent lamps or phytolamps will be required, and the light day should be 12 hours. If the foliage of the nandina becomes pink, this should not cause concern, as it is a natural process.
Temperature content To make Nandina feel comfortable, you will need to maintain slightly cool temperature indicators, never exceeding 20 degrees. In the autumn-winter period, the plant will be quite comfortable if the heat indicators are in the range of 10-15 degrees. In the summer it is recommended to put a pot with nandina in the garden, balcony or terrace, until the temperature drops to 5 degrees Celsius. When the cold season comes, it is recommended to move the plant to a cool room, where the temperature will be maintained at 10-15 degrees. In the winter months, it is possible to have a nandin in the lobby, hall or a glazed and insulated loggia or balcony. Such temperature changes are necessary in order for the plant to have time to rest by the new growing season.
Trimming nandina and general care. Since the bushes are not strongly branched shoots, then for the sake of increasing branching pinching the tops of the stems is not carried out. However, every 2-3 years it will be necessary to prune most of the shoots in order to stimulate the formation of young shoots. If such an operation is not performed, then over time the nandina bush will greatly stretch and its decorative effect will be lost. If the decision is made to give the plant a bonsai shape, then the side stalks and all lower leaves will need to be removed. After such pruning, the form of the nandina will be retained for many more months.
Air humidity. Best of all, when the humidity indicators are around 70%, then the lush crown of the plant will remain attractive for a long time. It is recommended to spray the foliage twice a day, also, to increase the humidity next to the pot, you can put humidifiers or install the nandina pot itself in a tray with moistened pebbles, expanded clay or sphagnum moss cut. The main thing is that the water was not much, and she did not reach the bottom of the pot. For spraying use only soft, devoid of lime and chlorine water. You can boil tap or take distilled. If this is not done, then the foliage will remain unaesthetic whitish stains.
Watering. In the spring and summer months, nandinu is recommended to moisten well, immediately after the drying of the upper layer of the soil. An indicator is that if you take the soil in a pinch, it easily crumbles. When autumn comes and watering is required during the winter period. The substrate bay cannot be allowed to prevent the root system from being supercooled, exactly like its drying. Watering is carried out with warm and well-settled water. Distilled, river or rainwater can be used.
Fertilizers for the nandina it is necessary to bring in the spring-autumn period (from April to October), when its growth is especially intensive. Apply liquid complex preparations for house plants. This shrub responds well to organic matter (mullein solution), but you should not forget about the not very pleasant smell of such products. The regularity of such feedings - once for 14 days. But in the winter for variegated caustic need fertilizers with a frequency - once a month.
Nandina Self-Reproduction Tips
Among the methods of plant reproduction can be distinguished: sowing seed, rooting cuttings and planting cuttings (radical children).
In order to plant the seeds, it is necessary in the autumn period to gather the fruits, free the seeds from the pulp and dry them thoroughly. Germination of such material is not lost during the three-year period. To begin with, it is recommended to grow seedlings in a mini greenhouse or greenhouse. A light substrate is poured into the container, for example, consisting of a peat-sand mixture (parts are taken equal). Then the soil is slightly moistened with a spray bottle, and the seeds go deep into it. Backlog is carried out by half a centimeter.
To create greenhouse conditions, the pot must be placed under glass or wrapped with a plastic bag. The container is placed in a warm place, where temperature indicators vary between 23–25 degrees. Before the shoots sprout - the light is not a prerequisite. It is important to remember to conduct daily airing of the seedlings and spraying from the soil sprayer if the soil is dry. Germination takes about 7–10 days. When the 4th real leaf plate is formed on the seedlings, you can dive in separate pots with soil suitable for adult nandins.
When grafting is required to cut the workpiece from the apical shoots. Cuttings should be 8–15 cm in length. The lower pair of leaves should be removed, and the cut of the cutting should be treated with a root formation stimulator (for example, heteroauxin or Corneumin). The cuttings are planted in a pot with a peat-sand substrate and wrapped with plastic wrap or placed under a cut plastic bottle. Until the cuttings take root, annual ventilation is required to remove condensate and if the soil in the tank is dry, it is moistened. The temperature during germination is maintained in the region of 15–20 degrees. The roots of the cuttings will be released for a half to three months. After that, young nandins can be transplanted in separate containers, at the bottom of which a drainage layer and selected soil are laid.
From the very base of the plant is the formation of basal shoots, which in the process of transplanting can be carefully separated and landed in separate containers. Since the wood from the Nandina is strong, then for its cutting use a pointed and disinfected garden tools. Then the slices can be powdered with powder from activated or charcoal and planted delenki to a new growing place. Such young nandins are distinguished by increased vitality, and the flowering process will begin next year from the moment of disembarkation.
Pests and diseases affecting nandin when grown indoors
If there is a violation of the conditions of detention, the plant is affected by pests, among which are: shield, aphids, spider mites and nematodes. Leaves can be wiped with a soap, oil or alcohol solution. However, a greater effect will bring the processing of modern insecticidal drugs with systemic effects.
If there is a constant filling of the substrate in a pot of nandin, then root decay and root rot can begin. In this case, the shrub is removed from the pot, the affected parts of the roots are removed and the remaining fungicides are treated, then the plant must be planted in a new sterilized container with a disinfected substrate. Watering is recommended to carefully calibrate to prevent overwetting.
Quite often, the leaves of the nandina can be subject to a disease - mosaic blotch, when a patterned yellowish color scheme resembling a mosaic is formed on the surface of the leaf. This is because the disease spreads through the thinnest streaks of the leaf plate. Alas, there is no treatment for this disease, but if it is only at the very beginning, then treatment with karbofos is carried out, at the rate of 75 grams of the drug is diluted in a 10 liter bucket of water. But before that, all affected parts are recommended to be removed.
Interesting Nandin Facts
Nandina has sapwood, a younger outer layer of a tree trunk that has the ability to conduct water. Painted wood in yellowish-brown color scheme. It is quite problematic to distinguish the annual rings, but the wide rays are well seen, and the spirals on the vessel walls. The fibers have simple pores, the arrangement of the vessels in the wood is organized - strips with convolutions created by combining the vessels and vascular tracheids.
Nandinu is usually grown as an ornamental crop, especially if natural conditions allow. Subtropics are preferable for it, which are possible in Crimea, the Caucasus and regions of Russia with a similar climate. In the Nandin culture introduced in the middle of the XIX century (1846), the workers of the Nikitsky Botanical Garden. Often it is used in the landing both singly and group plantings, creating a kind of decorative edges. But if climatic conditions do not allow, then nandin is grown as a kadochny plant.
Types of nandin
Since there is only one species in nature, breeders have worked to bring out multiple ornamental varietal species differing in shape, size and color of foliage:
- Nandina richmond it is distinguished by the property in the autumn period to change the color of the leaf plates to a bright red tone.
Nandina Force Fire is a dwarf plant, which is recommended for cultivation in the technique of bonsai, also has a red color of foliage.
Nandina Nana Pyrpurea characterized by the fact that in August the leaf plates acquire a bright and saturated purple or raspberry shade (this also reflects the name of the variety).
Nandina Harbor Draft is a medium-sized shrub, with parameters varying in height from 80 to 100 cm, with leaves with a wrinkled surface of bright red color in spring and autumn.
Nandina Alba "Flaunts" the fruits of white color, collected in the brush.
Nandina Compacta - variety with dwarf sizes.
Cultivation of nandina: planting, care, reproduction, transplantEvery gardener wants to grow in his home or garden an original plant that could please the eye all year round.
A perennial oriental shrub of Nandina, the embodiment of beauty and a riot of colors, is perfect for this purpose.
However, before you begin to grow it, you should remember some of the nuances relating to planting and care.
Nandina is a perennial evergreen tree or a lush ornamental shrub, the birthplace of which is Japan or China.
It has an open, cylindrical crown with lateral, slightly branching shoots of a light purple-violet hue, which later become simply grayish-brown. The leaves of the plant are large, complex triangular shape with a wedge-shaped base and a sharp tip, up to 40 cm in length. Located on the petioles (10-15 cm) with a vaginal base and keel. In the summer they are painted dark green, and in the fall, with a decrease in temperature, they acquire a bright red tint.
The pinkish-white small flowers of the nandina are collected in inflorescences and resemble in their structure a 20-40-centimeter broom, on which sometimes appear white or reddish berries with an oblong tip.
Currently, breeders bred about 50 varieties of home nandin, the most popular of which are:
- Alba with white matt berries.
- Dwarf variety "Compacta" (no more than 70 cm).
Lighting and shadow
This rare shrub feels great in a brightly lit area, but does not tolerate direct sunlight, so the area with diffused light would be the best option for nandin.
A loose and waterproof soil with moderate acidity (pH 3.5-6.4) is suitable for growing an oriental plant.
The soil mixture must consist of such ingredients:
- 1 piece of leafy ground
- 1 part turf soil,
- 1 part peat,
- 1/2 of coarse sand.
Planting and breedingReproduction of the nandina occurs in two ways: cuttings and seeds.
The cutting is carried out in the following way:
- Cuttings are selected 8 cm long, sand and peat mixture and special capacity for upsetting.
- For better rooting, cuttings are kept for 12 hours in advance in the solution of “Heteroauxin”.
- Before rooting, 2 lower leaves are removed.
- The cut is processed by “Korneovin”.
- Емкость с посаженным черенком переносят в теплое место (температура воздуха от 12 до 20 °С).
Для правильного размножения семена цветка высаживают в специальные садовые контейнеры на глубину около 2 сантиметров и перемещают в самодельную теплицу с поддерживаемой температурой воздуха от +20 до +22 °С.
When the first shoots appear, the containers should be transferred to a well-lit place, and in 3-4 weeks they should be fed with complex fertilizer.
How to care for a flower
To care for the shrub of the nandina is quite troublesome, but if you put your efforts and soul into this process, the result will exceed all your expectations.
In the warm season, watering should be abundant and carried out regularly. Water for manipulation must necessarily be soft and separated.To feed a plant is necessary both in a warm, and in a cold season. From April to December - once in 2 weeks, in the cold - once a month. Fertilizers must be complex, liquid, mineral or organic.
Young nandin (up to two years) are transplanted, as a rule, in the spring on an annual basis, and one transplant with an interval of 3-4 years is enough for mature plants. When performing this procedure, the roots of the shrub (of any age) must be pruned.
It is not necessary to trim the shrub of the nandina, as it does not branch, pinching the tops of the stems is also useless - manipulation does not stimulate the growth of side branches. However, if you wish, you can give a bush tree-like, if you cut off all the root shoots.
Difficulties and possible diseases
Even with the most careful care, the plant can suffer from some diseases that need to be identified with the very first symptoms:
- Spider mite- Nandin foliage turns yellow, a thin white web appears on the lower shoots. It is necessary to remove the affected leaves, and the plant is completely sprayed with water. If the defeat is strong, nandin should be treated with "Aktellik".
- Aphid - causes twisting and discoloration of leaves. Soot fungus can settle on the secretions of these insects. To get rid of the pest, it is necessary to treat the shrub with soapy water or "Aktellik" (depending on the degree of infection).
- Shchitovka - provokes the appearance of brown plaques on the leaves and shoots, in a short time the leaves turn yellow and fall off. To eliminate dilute the soap solution and, wetting it with a soft cloth, gently wipe the affected leaves. With a strong infection the foliage needs to be processed with “Decis”.
Nandina grown in its own garden will be one of the main eye ornaments; the oriental beauty will harmonize perfectly with ferns, juniper, barberry, viburnum and spirea.
The fruit of raspberry is a complex drupe, formed by a multitude of fused fruitlets. The color of the berry varies from orange, yellow and pink to almost black. Raspberry has a pronounced aroma and contains a whole set of unique nutrients that made it possible to use it in traditional medicine.
Berries are formed on the shoots of raspberry second year of life, after which they are removed to make room for young shoots. The exception is the remontant varieties of raspberries, whose shoots are cut annually. Garden raspberry begins to bear fruit by the end of June, and the fruiting period lasts no more than 2-3 weeks. Repair raspberry varieties enter the time of ripening berries later (by the end of July, in August), but this period lasts up to 3 months. And often such a raspberry even under the snow leaves with the fruits.
Raspberry bushes: landing
Before laying a raspberry pan, choose a suitable place for the site. Contrary to popular belief about raspberry shade, she needs good lighting and maximum protection from cold winds. Usually raspberries are planted along a fence or building. The soil for planting raspberries should be low acid or neutral (if necessary, it is lime).
When to plant raspberries
Each raspberry planting period has its advantages and disadvantages:
- Autumn planting gives seedlings time for rooting, and in the spring they start to grow up earlier. However, with insufficient shelter, freezing of raspberry shoots in winter is possible. Autumn planting (or transplanting) is done at least 2 weeks before the arrival of frost. In the middle lane is about the second half of October,
- Spring planting for raspberry seedlings provides more chances for a good adaptation - after all, there are several warm months ahead. Carry out planting until the kidneys swell - in the first half of April. The downside of this method is that this season, most likely, you will not see raspberry berries.
Important! Although it is believed that the plant can bear fruit up to 14 years, but already for 5-6 years the fruits of raspberries become smaller, and yields are reduced. Therefore, for 6-7 years it is recommended to update the planting of raspberry, replanting young seedlings to a new place.
How to plant raspberries
A plot for planting raspberry seedlings is prepared in advance: they plant pumpkin or legumes, green manure. An even better option would be a rested site where nothing grew. The arrangement of landings of raspberry is done in 2 ways:
- In the trench: the depth of such a trench is not less than 40 cm, and the width is up to 60 cm. The distance between the rows of bushes reaches 1.5 m,
- In the holes: the depth and width of the pits is similar to the previous method, and the distance between the seedlings is 0.7 m. The aisle space is 1.5 m.
Soil for planting
The soil of the pits is divided into 2 parts: the top fertile is diluted with organic matter (for each bucket of humus 1 tbsp. Wood ash) approximately in half and make a “pillow” of soil for the seedling, leaving about 1/3 of the depth of the hole free. After that put as follows:
- The prepared bush (stem height up to 40 cm, roots - 25-30 cm) is dipped into a clay mash,
- straightening the roots, placed in the hole or trench and sprinkled with soil, compacting the ground around the roots,
- special attention is paid to the placement of the root collar - it should slightly (2-3 cm) protrude above the soil level,
- at the end of the planting of raspberry bushes, they slightly twitch up: if the soil is supplied, the bush should be transplanted,
- the last stage of raspberry planting is the tamping of the soil around the bush, abundant watering (5-7 liters per bush), mulching with rotted straw, sawdust, peat.
Important! The subsequent watering of the bushes depends on the time of planting: in the fall it may not be needed at all, and in the spring it is carried out as needed (at least once a week).
Raspberries are among those crops that can not stand the drying of the soil. However, waterlogging can lead to rotting of the roots. Therefore, when caring for raspberries, it is important to maintain a balance: abundant rare watering and subsequent mulching allow the raspberry berries to gain enough moisture. At the same time, good soil drainage remains a prerequisite.
Important! In abundant watering garden raspberry needs in the period of flowering and fruiting.
Regular fertilization allows you to achieve higher yields and increase the time of fruiting raspberries without transplanting:
- In spring, raspberries are fed with mullein (1:10) or chicken droppings (1: 20) diluted in water. Before loosening, nitrogen fertilizers are applied to the soil under the old raspberry cake: ammonium nitrate (12 g per m²) and urea (10 g per m²),
- In the summer planting season, garden raspberries are mulched with bone meal, which contains a number of nutrients,
- After harvesting, the ground is sprinkled with wood ash, which is an excellent source of potassium for garden raspberries, between the rows
- Once every 3-5 years, raspberries are fed with compost or manure, bringing it when digging around the bushes after the end of fruiting. A replacement can be a complex fertilizer: 200 g per m².
Important! Nitrogen-containing fertilizers for raspberries are applied only in spring, because when introduced in the fall, the green mass builds up on the bushes, and in the roots, on the contrary, dystrophic processes begin.
One of the main agricultural practices in the care of raspberries and the main condition for obtaining abundant crops is the annual pruning of raspberries. Dates of its implementation depend on the raspberry variety:
- Garden varieties can be pruned at the end of fruiting, but more often the operation to remove the shoots is carried out with the onset of cold weather: old raspberry shoots are removed using a shears under the root. In the bush, 8-10 strongest shoots are left. After pruning the raspberries, the stalks are burned or taken off the site,
- Pruning raspberry pruning is done in the fall after leaf relief. This removes the entire aboveground part. Some gardeners practice the partial removal of shoots from remontant raspberries, thereby stimulating double fruiting - on the shoots of the first and second year of life. However, this method is not suitable for growing raspberries on an industrial scale, since the ripening of berries stretches for the whole summer, and the yield drops.
Important! Pruning raspberries of tall varieties provides for autumnal shortening of annual shoots to a height of 1.2-1.5 m. After that, tall stems are tied together in several pieces and attached to a support - a peg or trellis. If the winter in the region is cold, then the raspberries are bent to the ground (no higher than 40 cm) and, if necessary, they make additional shelter from fir tree branches, straw, leaves or covering materials.
Summer (traditional) varieties
This is a common garden raspberry, which bears fruit in June-July and requires the removal of two-year shoots:
- Meteor. It is characterized by early maturity, resistance to cold and disease. The yield reaches 2 kg from a bush with a mass of 1 berry 3 g,
- Scarlet Sails. The height of the shoots reaches 2.2 m, and yield - 1.7 kg per plant. This raspberry variety is resistant to low t even during late spring frosts,
- Tarusa. The variety is characterized by high shoots (up to 1.8 m) and medium ripening periods. The harvest reaches 6 kg from one plant, and the mass of one berry is 5 g. A distinctive feature is the absence of thorns.
Such raspberry varieties have many advantages: large fruits weighing up to 12 g, the ability of fruit branches to branch, especially pronounced taste and aroma:
- Ruby giant. Raspberry variety with early ripening and medium frost resistance, has a medium-tall sprawling bush and truncated-conical large (up to 11 g) berries of a rich ruby color. Productivity is high - up to 9 kg,
- Patricia. One of the most popular varieties of raspberries with large fruits. The crop reaches 4-5 kg from one plant, and the mass of one berry is 4-12 g. Patricia has good transportability indicators and does not crumble even in a mature state,
- Aborigine The variety is characterized by medium ripening periods, medium winter hardiness and shoot height of up to 1.5-2 m. Large (4-7 g) berries have a conical shape, bright red color and tender sweet-sour pulp. Productivity - 4-7 kg, excellent transportability,
- Golden giant Raspberry variety with powerful upright shoots and excellent winter hardiness and transportability. Fruits are large (8-14 g), elongated-conical shape of an unusual dark golden color. The harvest from one bush reaches 8 kg.
In the gardens and on the backyards, remontant raspberry varieties are increasingly replacing common varieties, since they have a number of advantages:
- early fruiting, which begins in the very first year: they plant in the autumn, and in the summer they harvest;
- the absence of pests and diseases, since the fruiting of raspberries later (insects have already completed the development cycle), and in the fall all shoots, along with diseases, are cut to zero,
- no need to cover for the winter, because the whole above-ground part of the raspberry is removed, and it is enough just to mulch the roots,
- late flowering avoids the threat of late frosts, and this does not affect the yield,
- the minimum number of offspring allows almost not thinning the bushes, although if you want to breed, this advantage turns into a disadvantage.
Among the few drawbacks of the repair raspberry are also high demands for good light and the almost complete absence of a characteristic aroma. However, with full autumn pruning, remontant raspberry shows high yields with proper care. Its most popular varieties are:
- Bryansk miracle. Raspberry variety of early terms of fruiting. With relatively low (up to 1.5 m) shoots, the yield is up to 3 kg of large (11 g) fruits with excellent transportability properties. Other varieties with early ripeness include: Heracles, Diamond, Red Guard,
- Atlanta. It refers to varieties with medium ripening: fruiting begins in late August. The harvest from one bush makes 2,5 kg. The berries are large (11 g), they hold firmly on the fruit tree, but they are removed and transported well. The repair grades of medium ripening period also include Polana, Yaroslavna, Ruby necklace, Orange miracle (yellow).
Important! Usually, remontant raspberries are chosen for commercial breeding, as they bear more fruit than usual, and the fruit preservation is several times higher. The high yield yields of remontant raspberry varieties include: Brusviana (8 kg), Yaroslavna (8-9 kg), Penguin (15 kg), Shugan (9 kg), Yellow Giant (12-15 kg).
The earliest ripening varieties of garden raspberries begin to ripen in June, and later ripen only in August. Since the fruits have a very delicate structure, the raspberries are hand-picked at the early stage of ripening. Therefore, harvesting is the most expensive of all processes in the industrial cultivation of raspberries - it takes up to 70% of labor costs. In some countries (Denmark, USA, Scotland, New Zealand), special combine harvesters are used to pick raspberries, which shake the berries off the stalk.
For preservation of high commercial quality, manual collection is used:
- Better time to harvest raspberries - the morning before the onset of the sun. However, the berry must be dry, so early morning is not suitable,
- The fruits of raspberries are removed by gently rolling the fruitbed, without squeezing,
- At a time, only a few berries are taken in the palm, so that they do not get crushed,
- Only ripe fruits of raspberries are harvested, and only in some cases it is allowed to remove them together with the fruitful,
- If the weather is rainy for a long time, then a preventive collection is carried out, removing overripe and rotten raspberries in order to avoid the spread of infection. These fruits are allowed for processing,
- Collected raspberries are placed in special low drawers in no more than two rows, as they can flow under the excess weight.
For preservation, not only low t (0 + 2 ° С) is required, but also a certain humidity - 90-95%, to achieve which special moisturizers and perforated stretch film are used. In this case, the raspberries can last up to a week (subject to collection in dry weather), if the conditions are not observed, the terms are reduced.