General information

Feeding pigs: we make the best diet and choose the right technology.


In the summer, for this it is good to use light, cheap rooms built from planks. The size of the machine for keeping young animals for fattening is enough to have 3-4 m 2.

For fattening in the summer-autumn time, it is better to buy a pig at the end of winter or at the beginning of spring.

By the summer the piglet will get stronger, will noticeably grow up and will consume a large number of cheap green fodder.

My Piggy

In this article, we will talk about food. Feeding Vietnamese piglets, by and large, is almost no different from traditional, white pigs.

Vietnamese pigs are also omnivorous, although they are called herbivores.

True, there are some nuances, for example, the device of the digestive system.

The "Vietnamese", smaller stomach, intestines - thinner, the food passes faster through the digestive tract.

Feeding pigs: we make the best diet and choose the right technology.

Habitually pigs are fed food waste and cooked root vegetables.

From the first days, the piglets need additional nutrients that need to be given in the form of top dressing. As already mentioned, in the machine for piglets they arrange a dressing department, where they put troughs for mineral dressing and dry feed, dishes for water.

Feed troughs are made of planed boards with a thickness of 2.5–3 cm.

The height of the trough should not be more than 10–12 cm, width - 10–15 cm and length - 50–60 cm.

Please note: 1). This must be the fat from the TUKES of fish (salmon, menhaden, herring), and IN NO EVENT, NOT FROM THE LIVER.

How to give fish oil?

It is a liquid oily substance from light yellow to yellow color, with a characteristic more or less weak fishy smell and the same taste. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES Fish oil is a natural source of vitamins A, D and E, polyunsaturated fatty acids, iodine, bromine, phosphorus and sulfur in the form of organic compounds.

Peculiarities of feeding pigs: products worth using for this

Habitually pigs are fed food waste and cooked root vegetables. In general, such food is acceptable for these animals, but you will not be able to quickly and efficiently raise an individual. Therefore, it is recommended to use various technologies of intensive feeding, which include a balanced feed and various vitamin supplements.

In any of these cases, it is worth considering the peculiarities of the body of pigs. The fact is that these pets have a single-chamber stomach, and for this reason, unlike cattle, they digest fiber containing feed much more difficult.

In this regard, consisting of succulent greens or feed should be only a small percentage of the total diet of pigs, mostly it is worth using concentrated feed. The latter are easier and best absorbed by the body of animals, positively affecting how it will gain live weight.

What type of feeding to give preference, each breeder decides independently, although there may be two main options:

    Traditional wet feeding, which involves the use of mash.

In this case, they use all sorts of food waste, vegetables, specially boiled potatoes, grains and grass (both fresh and finely chopped hay).

Dry feeding of pigs, which is based on the use of a variety of crushed grain mixtures. TO

They also add pea flour, cake, vitamin and mineral supplements.

In this case, it is very important to give animals a large amount of water, otherwise they will very seriously suffer from constipation, weight gain will slow down.

Most modern pig producers consciously prefer the second method, which has proved itself to be more labor-intensive and efficient.

First, you do not have to cook the pigs several times a day and carry them into the mashed barn in heavy buckets.

Your only labor will be to pre-crush grain, mix it with all the additional components and pour the required amount into the trough for your pets.

Secondly, with such feeding, there will be practically no stink in the room, and the manure itself has a faster ability to decompose into organic components, that is, to become fertilizer for plants.

Yes, and as already noted, such feeding is much better reflected in the growth of small pigs, giving the opportunity to get meat in a very short time. Thus, if you do not need pigs as a waste consumer, the option of feeding dry ingredients is more beneficial in all plans.

Discussing the features of the vitamin complex

Like a person, for normal growth pigs require a full-fledged diet, not devoid of vitamins. We think no one would be surprised to learn that the lack of any vitamin in the animal's body can cause a decrease in immunity, deterioration in the growth of animals, their fertility, and in rare cases - of death.

But do not think that the source of vitamins can only be special supplements. They can be obtained from the usual products, the first place which should be taken green fodder. They are rich in carotene and the most important groups of vitamins.

If in the summer the grass and other greens can be given fresh, then for the winter it is worth preparing as a silo. Hay can also be given, but it loses most of the properties of green grass.

A good source of vitamins needed for pigs is needles and dried nettle.

It is very important to add to the diet and red varieties of carrots.

Good use of the general condition of the body and the use of food, beer or bread yeast, which can fully satisfy the body's need for vitamin B. A priceless source of vitamins are all dairy products, and therefore giving fresh milk is especially important for young individuals.

In the winter period of time, when animals can use the resources of their bodies to withstand the cold, food should be especially rich and healthy. Therefore, you can use special vitamin supplements, including fish oil. It is among the most popular sources of vitamins of groups A and D.

Also, special concentrates of vitamins A and B are often used in animal husbandry.

What foods can harm pigs and how to feed them properly?

Many consider pigs omnivorous. In part, this is true, but still there are a number of subtleties that should be considered when feeding these animals:

    Grain is better to give these animals in a ground form. Whole pigs will also be eaten, but it will not be completely digested, as the animal will not be able to fully experience it.

It is also advantageous to use ground grain from an economic point of view, since in this form the costs will be minimal and the animal will be full.

With traditional feeding, potatoes are the main staple food of pigs. However, giving it to animals just like that is not worth it raw, as it can harm them.

This root must be boiled, after thoroughly washing. Also, the water that remains after cooking potatoes is not recommended for use in feeding.

  • Giving root vegetables in raw form is possible only as a vitamin supplement in small quantities. And yet, one potato should not be used, it is better to mix it with beets, turnips. And in large quantities such products are given only in a welded form.
  • The spoiled pig products also react very negatively.. Especially carefully you need to refer to the silo, not allowing it to freeze or rot, mold.

    All this can cause the development of bacterial and viral diseases in an animal, there is a possibility of infection through meat and in humans.

    Products that should always be included in the diet of pigs

    When feeding pigs it is very important not only to choose the right products, but also their quantity.

    If you give the animal too large portions - this will in no way lead to a rapid weight gain, the food will still remain in the trough.

    For subsequent feeding, the leftovers should not be used, since spoiled food will not benefit the animal. So that the products do not disappear, these remains can be fed to ducks or turkeys, such food can also come to taste to chickens.

    It is imperative to add grain to the diet of pigs. However, despite the fact that they are rich in carbohydrates, they do not have enough protein. In this regard, it is necessary to make food more diverse, adding to it the grains of legumes, and fodder yeast, and skim milk.

    Useful for pigs will be meat and bone meal or fish meal, cake, reverse.

    In general, for those components that can replenish the products of the body of the animal, they can be divided into the following groups:

    • Components that are able to provide the body with animal energy. They are found in grains, corn and fats.
    • They contain large amounts of protein soybean, rapeseed, sunflower flour, meat and bone meal, blood meal and fish meal, peas, reverse, sweet lupine, beans, yeast.
    • Succulent feeds such as potatoes, cabbage, beets and herbs (silage). However, in spite of all their usefulness, they are difficult to digest; therefore, juveniles should be given a juicy feed with caution.
    • Other components. In this group it is customary to include various types of food waste, waste from the brewing industry, meat processing plants.

    Modes of feeding pigs and the differences between them

    • Feeding "plenty." In this case, small piglets are given constant access to food. Troughs are cleaned 2 times a week to prevent coarse comas from old feeds from accumulating in them. Their piglets will not eat anyway.

    Such a system is more suitable for young individuals, it is not recommended to use it for adults.

    "Normalized" feeding. In this case, food pigs give several times a day. At the same time, the amount of food should be such that the animals can empty the trough even 1-2 hours before the next serving of food.

    This type of feeding is mainly used for feeding sows and piglets that are growing.

    "Limited" feeding pigs. The essence of such a system is to give the piglets a little less food than they could eat. At the same time, you can either really give less feed, or you can give less nutritious food, giving the piglets rough food.

    If such feeding is used for fattening piglets, but the meat obtained from them will be lean. Also, this type is used for pregnant sows, so that they do not gain a lot of fat.

    Feeding regimes are not all you need to know about pig feeding. It is important to pay attention to exactly what products animals need at different ages. About this below.

    It is also interesting to read about pig meat breeds.

    Diet for different ages of pigs: components and their quantities

    An important aspect of feeding pigs is not only the selection of the right foods, but also the systematization of meals. In particular, it is best to give food to animals at the same time, changing the number of receptions depending on their age:

    • Pregnant sows are fed only once a day. At the same time, it is very important to add rough foods to their diet.
    • Single and nursing sows are fed more often, twice a day.
    • Pigs that were removed from the sow should be fed at least 3 times a day. Also often feed those pigs who are on the rearing and fattening.

    Fatted pigs can be given regular feeds twice, and rough feeds can be used for the third one.

    Dairy pigs and their feeding

    To teach small suckling pigs to feed is already from the fifth day, since from that moment their teeth begin to be cut.

    Best of all, the dental system and salivary glands develop when they use toasted grains of peas, wheat, corn, or barley.

    However, they may have gastrointestinal diseases from feed, so do not forget to give them acidophilic sour milk.

    Combined feeds with special premixes for piglets are gradually added to the ration, or chalk, bone meal and coal are used.

    On the 10th day, they are already allowed to give a little shabby carrot, later it can only be finely cut.

    Over time, it is allowed to include in the food a little beet, pumpkin and combined silage, but very small amounts. Upon reaching three weeks of age, the pigs will be able to fully digest and boiled potatoes.

    Take away from the uterus piglets is important to 1.5 months of age. By this time, they need to learn how to fully eat independently, less and less admitting them to their mother.

    Also, sow important to translate into dry feedThat will cause a cessation of lactation. About how many times to feed piglets weaned, we have already spoken. And in the diet they need to include the following products:

    • Mixtures of concentrates.
    • Milk (preferably skimmed).
    • Juicy and fortified feed - carrot, hay, silage.
    • Minerals.

    How to properly feed the gilts?

    Feeding, or rather growing, of gilts is a very important task.

    The fact is that during this period, they just formed the main bones, as well as muscle tissue, which later became the basis for laying off fat.

    In the summer, it is rather simple to keep them in the pasture, feeding them with young grass, and adding to the diet a little kitchen waste and vitamin concentrates.

    You can feed them with something similar to the soup: steamed two hours before feeding grass mixed with warm boiled potatoes and concentrates. During this period, the pigs should gain from 20 to 50 kilograms.

    How pigs are fattened for slaughter: the main aspects of the required diet

    When the pigs reach a weight of 50 kilograms, they can be actively fed, so that they gain not only body weight, but also fat mass. It lasts 3 months and during this period the pigs should be fed into the diet as much as possible nutritious foods. At the same time, it should be borne in mind that different foods affect the quality of meat in different ways:

    • If you give fish waste - about meat will pull the fish.
    • For bacon pigs, it is important to give dairy products, which give the meat a pleasant aroma.
    • Loose and tasteless pork will be when the animals give a lot of potatoes, wheat bran, corn and buckwheat.
    • Vegetables make fat flabby.
    • Soy and cake reduce the quality of pork.

    Feeding adults - boars and sows

    The boar is very quickly gaining fat mass, so the food he needs is easily digestible. Experts recommend 75% of the diet boar from concentrates. Another 10% of the diet should be supplements that are of animal origin, and various succulent feed.

    Legumes are also important for the normal metabolism of the animal, so their particle in the entire diet should be at least 5%.

    Wheat bran, barley flakes, oats, beets, carrots and skimmed milk are the main products that boar needs to provide. To make the whole diet as balanced as possible, do not forget about vitamin supplements.

    The main rate when feeding sows in the period of gestation should be done on high-quality and diverse feed. This may be green grass and silage, and various root crops.

    For a variety of different concentrates, mineral supplements, herbal and meat and bone meal.

    It is very important that the sow does not have a calcium deficiency, because in the future she will still have to bear the young. Therefore, it is very important to include ordinary chalk or limestone in its diet.

    Also, it is unacceptable that in the first months of gestation, feeding is unnecessarily abundant, since this may cause the death of the embryo. Feeding in the second half of gestation should be with minimal added succulent feed. The total amount of feed in the last 3 days before farrowing should be reduced by 30-40%.

    Feed classification

    All feed, depending on their impact on the quality of meat and fat, are divided into three classes (groups).

    The influence of the group of feed on the quality of meat and fat:

    2 months before slaughtering, the third group of feed is completely excluded, the percentage ratio of feed of the first group increases.

    Dry food

    An alternative to feeding pigs with food waste may be dry feeding. Dry feeding includes a mixed menu of mixed fodder, grain "crushed", bran, hay shavings, oil cake and dry additives. Greens, vegetables and dairy products are not present in this type of feeding, however, the pigs feel great, which has a positive effect on the productivity indicators.

    Owners either purchase dry industrial feed, or make it themselves. As an additive used premixes and vitamins. The amount of additives depends on the breed of animals, age, structural features, individual preferences, etc.

    Сухой вид кормления является более распространенным, так как пищеварительный тракт свиньи испытывает меньше нагрузок из-за отсутствия беспрерывного процесса брожения.

    Для профилактики здоровья животного необходимы биокорма. Включение биодобавок в меню покрывает потребность организма в витаминах, минералах и микроэлементах. Они улучшают самочувствие, поддерживают функциональность всех органов и тканей.

    An important component in the nutrition of pigs is juicy greens, which can be used in the form of herbal granules or eat fresh grass on the run. Animals love to help themselves to the tops of vegetables from the garden. These are tops of carrots, and beets, and squash, weeds, etc.

    In addition to vitamins, vegetables and fruits are added to the dry premix additives. The pigs are happy to eat the washed and crushed treats: beets, cabbage, apples, carrots, etc. Potatoes are pre-boiled before serving.

    Protein and mineral supplements

    Supplements improve the growth of piglets, support the development of young and adult individuals. Protein supplements go into pigs for food: milk, milk yield, yogurt, animal waste, etc. Waste from fish and meat is washed and crushed.

    Mineral supplements (Fe, K, Cl, etc.), mixed into food or poured separately (for example, coal and ash), pigs are obtained with tufa, chalk, eggshell. Novice farmers adjust the daily menu using the table “Consumption of a mixture of bone meal, salt and chalk”, which contains detailed instructions for the ratio of consumption rates to the age of the animal, its sex and even the time of year.

    Feed Yeast

    The high content of proteins and vitamins, which are absorbed almost completely in the body, make this supplement especially valuable. The efficiency of productivity grows many times. Feed yeast is available in powder or pellet form. Their use does not entail undesirable consequences: products from animals after use are safe for humans.

    Amino acids, vitamins, hormones and trace elements that make up the yeast, promote growth, improve the appetite and health of pigs.

    Tips for newbies:

    • expose to yeast at least 30% of the feed from the daily menu. For example, from 2 kg. 600 g. feed mixture should be mixed with yeast.
    • Baking yeast or brewer's yeast can act as an analogue of fodder yeast.

    Types of feeding

    Currently, there are three methods of feeding pigs: dry, liquid and wet feeding (intermediate type). In large farms, the dry way of feeding is more popular. At home, they use all 3 methods, but more often they resort to the second one, so in a household farm it is easier to diversify the composition of food with food waste, mash, chowder with dairy products, grass, etc.


    Dry The type of feeding does not require much time: a premix is ​​added to the feed, and the drinking bowl must be provided with water. It is possible to prepare feed in advance by mixing it with the premix (at the rate of 10 g per 1 kg of finished feed). Extruded feeds are rich in vitamins and minerals and have several advantages:

    • manufactured in production and ready to eat
    • contribute to the rapid increase in the weight of pigs,
    • do not involve problems in digestion,
    • no ammonia odor in manure,
    • the feed does not sour and does not deteriorate.

    With a dry type of feeding, the piglets get a balanced diet and therefore grow quickly.

    Liquid Meals are prepared on their own by hand. There are sour milk and milk in the feed, food debris from the kitchen. Do not give waste with the content of household chemicals.

    At home cultivation applied intermediate wet feeding. Mixtures of boiled potatoes with grass, chopped vegetables, food waste, oil cakes, etc. are served as feed. The minus is that they quickly turn sour, because it is important to clean the feeders often.

    Feed preparation

    Most of the feed before use needs to be prepared or processed. These measures are necessary in order to increase the nutritional value, improve the digestibility of food or for the purpose of disinfection. The preparation process depends on the method of implementation and is divided into methods: mechanical, physical, chemical and biological.

    Vegetable preparation

    The most common and affordable vegetable is potato. In its raw form, it is poorly digested in the pig stomach, so it is washed, boiled, and then crushed. The water in which the potatoes are boiled cannot be added to food due to the content of the poisonous substance - solanine. As a rule, potatoes are mixed with crushed dry or steamed grains, adding green food.

    Potatoes for pigs

    Carrots, beets, pumpkins and other melons are usually served in a raw, ground form. Do not rub and chop vegetables for future use - they can sour or rot. If carrots, beets or pumpkins are boiled beforehand, they can be added with the water in which they are boiled.

    Preparation of cereals

    Special attention is required prior preparation of cereals. In general, the form of cereal is not effective to feed - the grain is not digested and goes into the manure, passing in transit through the pig's stomach.

    The best processing of cereals is grinding. The finer grinding the better. It is necessary to grind corn and oats as needed because of the fat contained in the grains - it is able to quickly oxidize and bitten, therefore it should not be reserved for the future.

    In feeding, an important role is played by peas and lentils, but they must first be boiled for maximum assimilation.

    Useful qualities of grain increase, if it germinate. This process is quite simple. Low crates filled with grain are placed so that they get sunlight. Within 9-10 days, the grain is watered. The grain will be ready for use as soon as the sprouts are stretched upwards by 8-10 cm. This method is often used for feeding small piglets and sows.

    On a note! The use of cereal suckling piglets is taught by feeding grains, roasted to a dark chocolate shade - this contributes to the growth of teeth in small piglets.

    Preparation of fresh green fodder

    Additive of greens also require attention when preparing to feed. Rough and dried stalks are removed from the grass, leaving leaves with sprigs, then finely chopped. Preparation for the future is not recommended, so it will wither or rot.

    Preparation of greens for pigs

    Preparation of combined silo

    Useful properties of a silo are improved if it is combined before serving. Pigs with pleasure feed on mixed fodder from crushed juicy root crops, vegetables and green mass. It can be sugar and hemispheric beets, carrots, cabbage, as well as lupins, green biomass of legumes and corn. This method of storing feed is an excellent bio-preservation.

    Important points in preparing a good kombisilos:

    1. All vegetables and herbs have a certain period for ensiling. For example, silage of peas and lupine is best done before flowering, the best time for maize is the phase of milky-wax ripeness, vegetables are when they are fully ripe.
    2. Ready and crushed silage is heavily rammed into a trench or tank to force air out. The trench should be lined, in the case of laying the silo in the tank using plastic packaging. Harvesting of combisilos is a great opportunity to preserve perishable food by a biological method.
    3. It is impossible to silage tops, as well as nettles.
    4. It is impossible to feed an ice-cream and mold covered silage to animals - this can harm their health.

    Popular Silo Combination Recipes:

    Yeast Feed

    Yeast feed from the total mass of the concentrate takes 1/3 part. This method improves appetite, helps the assimilation of other feed, affects the growth of animal mass.

    Yeast baker's yeast is performed by two methods: straight and sponge (yeast).

    Bezoparny method: pour warm water (no more than 40 degrees) in a capacity of 20 liters, add 100 grams of diluted yeast, add 10 kilograms of dry small food to the resulting solution, stirring, leave for 8 hours of fermentation, and stir the liquid mass every 20-25 minutes .

    Ferment method (the only difference is in cooking dough): let's make a starter: add 5 liters of warm water (40 degrees) to a 20 liter saucepan, in which 100 grams of yeast are stirred, add 2 kg. feed, stir and let it brew. After 5-6 hours, add 15 liters of warm water and 7-9 kg of dry concentrate again. Wait another 2 hours and the brew can be fed for feeding.

    Harmful feed

    Be sure to check the quality of the feed:

    • if a mold appears in the mixture or parasites are wound up - it must be destroyed,
    • Not all herbs can be given to food for pigs, so among them there are poisonous and harmful plants: euphorbia, black nightshade, hemlock, dog parsley, edible buttercup, horse dill, pikulnik and others. To prevent poisoning of livestock, you need to carefully consider the choice of grass,
    • cotton cake and castor oil from cotton are pretreated with heat treatment or alkali to neutralize the toxic substance - gossypol alkaloid,
    • sprouts on potatoes and green tubers are also dangerous for the digestive system, like water after boiling potatoes,
    • boiled beets can not be left for a long time in hot water - it provokes poisoning.

    Sprouts on potatoes are dangerous for digestion

    Rules to help escape from digestion difficulties:

    • follow the feeding mode, clean and wash the feeder regularly,
    • combine and balance the diet with various additives,
    • feed only clean food, excluding mold and vermin, rotten and spoiled food,
    • shred all food without exception,
    • in conditions of free grazing, do not allow foreign objects to fall into the ground, because pigs like to tear off the ground and pick up everything from it.

    Factors affecting the daily intake of pig feed:

    • period of the year
    • age of the animal,
    • the floor of the animal,
    • the state of health of the mumps.

    The daily rate of feeding pigs can be affected by various factors - whether it is weather, climate, or the biological characteristics of the animal. For example, in the cold season additional energy is needed for warming; therefore, in winter, the standard of feed per day increases, and in the summer months - on the contrary, decreases. For sows (lactating, pregnant) increase the daily rate and nutritional value of feed.

    Proper feeding should be carried out throughout the life cycle of the pig. And the beginning of the feeding process comes from birth. At first, piglets feed on mother's milk, but from the fifth day of life, pig breeders recommend starting feeding.

    Mother's milk for any mammal is the key to good health and good development of the body in all subsequent years. Milk strengthens the immune system, providing all the necessary substances and vitamins pig suckling from the first day of life. The first two weeks is the only feed for piglets.

    Milk for suckers is very useful.

    After 2 weeks in piglets the need for an increase in nutrients increases, in sows at this point lactation decreases.

    Farmers with experience recommend starting to train piglets to solid feed from the fifth day of life. In order for the pigs to grow and strengthen their teeth, they are given, as complementary foods, wheat, maize or barley grains roasted to a dark chocolate shade. To begin with, a little grain is scattered directly on a dry floor, and later - sprinkled into small troughs.

    To ensure that the food in piglets is well digested and digested in the diet, acidophilic sour milk is added, thereby increasing the fermentation of the stomach.

    After another couple of days, the menu is diluted slightly with premixed bonemeal and chalk.

    Early adding succulent feed is not recommended. After the 10th day of life, babies are given a chance to try grated carrots. Later - add grated pumpkin and beets, combined silage.

    Potatoes, boiled and crushed, give 20-day pigs.

    On day 45, the grown-up piglets are weaned from the sow and transferred to a wet or dry method of feeding. In this very period, sows reduce the daily rate of succulent feed, replacing them with dry to reduce the amount of milk in sows.

    At the 50th day of life, the piglets go on 3 meals a day, they are transferred to another room, separated from sows.

    At this stage, there is an enhanced growth of the skeleton of animals, therefore, a large amount of animal protein is included in the diet: this is bone and fish meal, yogurt, low-fat milk.

    Recommendations for percent feed balancing:

    • concentrate - 80%,
    • vegetables and root vegetables - 10%,
    • bean flour - 5%,
    • fish, bone or meat and bone meal - 5%.

    Piglets in rearing

    Changing the menu of young animals occurs when they reach a weight of 20-25 kilograms. From this point on, they are classified as gilts. For the active growth of the body requires more and more vitamins and minerals - the concentrate is mixed with green mass, juicy roots and vegetables.

    Grass is added to the diet

    Also, grass is added to the diet. A part of which is served fresh, the other is pre-steamed in boiling water. After a few hours, pounded boiled potatoes and dry food are added to the steamed grass. The consistency of this mixture should be similar to slush.

    Adult pigs

    As soon as the pigs reach a weight of 40-50 kilograms, then from the category of “gilt” they move into the category of “adult pigs”. At this moment, pigs are fattened according to a special menu, choosing at their discretion either a diet to improve the quality and volume of meat, or - to increase the amount of fat.

    The rate of average daily weight gain in a given period of time is considered to be 650 grams. At the age of six months the weight of pigs reaches 100-120 kg. The standard cost of 1 kilogram of weight should not exceed 4 feed. units

    In order to increase the efficiency of the result in everyday weight gain up to 850 g, the most nutritious dry food with the lowest fiber content is introduced into the diet.

    Boars manufacturers

    When feeding boars, an important difference is control over their condition. From the fact that male pigs can be depleted or, conversely, ozhireyut, directly affects their sexual activity and performance.

    During sexual activity, boars require an increase in the rate of nutritious feed due to accelerated metabolism.

    If males are on overexposure (restrictions on mating), then the standard of feeding is reduced by 10-20%, given their actual weight.

    Depending on the age, males are offered different volumes of dry food. Proportions should be made on the basis of one centner of live weight: 1.6 kg for growing, and 1.4 kg for adults. The basis of the menu is cereal, cake, meal, meat and fish production waste, peas.


    The menu of sows can vary depending not only on their weight and age, but also on their current state:

    • are they to be inseminated (idle),
    • pregnant women,
    • whether they feed piglets (lactating).

    During pregnancy, sows in the first 84 days do not need an increased need for energy feeds. A month before pregnancy, the amount of energy feed increases by 20%.

    More nutritious foods are offered to young guinea pigs under the age of 2 years.

    Pregnant uterus is under special control - the weight of the pig must be moderately fed. Neither weight reduction, nor its excess is allowed.

    At the time of sowing lactation, the amount of nutrients in the diet increases significantly. The amount of feed should be sufficient so that lactation does not decrease and this does not lead to the starvation of the piglets.

    The sowed sow does not feed for the first hours, but only allows it to drink clean water. After 5 hours after farrowing, she is given about 0.7 kilograms of liquid concentrate. In the subsequent feeding standard is increased to 1 kilogram. Throughout the week, every feeding standard gradually comes to a normal portion. Violation of this rule is fraught with the fact that a lot of milk will remain in the body and lead to sow disease.

    In drawing up the menu for pigs, it is important to consider the recommendations of experienced pig producers, observing all the rules. Ignoring important tips, beginners risk incurring extra costs, and animals will develop incorrectly and unevenly, which will negatively affect the quality characteristics of products. Observing the norms and rations of food pigs, farmers will be able to provide the consumer's table with healthy and tasty meat and fat products.

    What to feed the little pigs

    Growing piglets requires certain knowledge and skills in the field of animal husbandry. One of the most important issues here is the question of how to feed the little pigs.

    During the first two weeks of life, piglets should be fed exclusively from sow's milk. When animals reach the age of 15 days, the mother’s milk is already low. Therefore, additional feeding is required. In order to grow the pigs the most productive, you need to teach them to feed more at a time when they are fed from sows. Pigs have a very small stomach, so they feed them little, but often.

    Dry feed should be poured into small troughs and updated daily. For mineral dressing and water, there must also be special containers that the sow cannot reach. It is better to feed dairy pigs with charcoal, turf, harvested in autumn, and red clay. Когда вода и минеральные подкормки станут привычными для поросят, на том же самом месте необходимо установить корытце с киселем, кашей и молоком. Так как маленькие поросята крайне подвержены разного рода заболеваниям желудка, корма им следует давать исключительно свежие.

    Корнеплоды, которые можно начинать давать поросятам с 20-го дня их жизни, сначала нужно измельчать на терке, а потом мелко резать. Картофель варят, охлаждают и дают в смеси с концентратами. В первые дни его следует очищать и тщательно растирать.

    Поросята очень хорошо едят картофельное пюре с молоком или обратом. But you need to remember about the ability of such feed, quickly sour. Therefore, it is better to cook it a little bit and not to leave the trough for more than 15 minutes. Then the feeder should be thoroughly washed, and the remains should be given to an adult animal.

    How to feed the little pigs

    In this article, we continue to talk about piglets, which for some reason were left without mother's milk.

    To properly organize the feeding of such small weaners, we must remember that the pig feeds the pigs every half hour. Even the babies themselves, being separate from the mother, fall asleep after feeding and exactly half an hour later begin to show activity, and soon pass to a scream. The most they can handle is a forty-five minute break. So, taking into account the time for their feeding, toilet and comfort, we should feed them in the first week at such intervals both day and night.

    If this break is increased, the piglets are too starved and can drink more than the norm, which will certainly lead to diarrhea. How to set this rate? To say that you need to drink 20, 30, 50 ml is to say nothing. Drinking its own norm, the pig increases its every day. And only in that case it will not be dangerously exceeded if the baby is not hungry.

    From the very first days, piglets are taught to drink from a bowl. To do this, they put a rag on their knees in order not to smear, put a piglet there, hold a cup of milk under the muzzle with one hand, and fix the head of the piglet with the other hand so that it does not climb into the cup.

    Everything that bees produce is a priceless gift. In my household, I use even those who come to the index finger while it is free. He is dipped into milk and the piglet is smeared with palate and tongue. Keep your fingers from the fangs, and then bite. Milk must be warm, well sweeten it a little.

    Very hungry piglets start sucking their fingers on the first attempt, the rest - on the next feeding. As soon as the piglet begins to suck, the finger must be immersed in milk, so that the baby places a little face in it. At the next feeding or through time the pig will suck milk without a finger, then it will be possible not to take it into your hands.

    Milk is not diluted with water, but if the piglet is bruised, then add ordinary tea. Best of all, of course, use a substitute for pork milk. But if it is not, you can completely do cow. It is very important that neither milk nor porridge be sour, otherwise the babies will begin to have diarrhea.

    If the piglets are very weak and their appetite is lowered, you can add a little tea tea to the milk before it forms a pale cream color.

    For some reason, the smell and taste of tea leaves are very attractive for piglets. They get drunk quickly, literally in a few seconds they leave the bowl. No need to force pigs to drink more - diarrhea will definitely begin.

    Water is also needed for the pigs, they can be given it two or three times a day. Let them drink as much as they need.

    Growing pigs at home

    Regardless of the breed, growing pigs at home goes through several stages:

    1. Farrow and podsosnaya period. The duration of this stage is approximately four weeks: from birth and feeding exclusively with mother's milk to their weaning from the sow.
    2. The period of weaning from breast milk and the mother as a whole. This stage takes about 7-10 days, when the piglets begin to stay with the sow exclusively for feeding her milk.
    3. The final period - fattening piglets. There are different types of fattening, depending on the goals, i.e. meat, bacon and greasy.
    4. The goal of fattening meat is to get young and juicy pork in 6-8 months.
    5. Bacon fattening is more time consuming and expensive, at which they get enough demanded pork for cooking bacon.
    6. Fattening piglets to greasy condition occurs to obtain selected fat from pork carcasses.

    Certain conditions are necessary for growing and keeping piglets: a room, a designated feeding place, a place for walking, temperature, vaccinations, timely treatment, and so on.

    Pigs are raised in small herds, preferably of the same age, sex, weight and physiological state. Pigs of different breeds in different ways endure the stresses of both natural and technological.

    To achieve good results when growing boars at home, it is necessary to neute them at a monthly age. For the purpose of full development and rapid growth, young animals need walking and in winter and summer. Observance of animal hygiene standards in the pig houses leads to the selection of selected pigs and, consequently, to material gain.

    How much feed does a pig need for maximum fattening?

    From 5-6 days after birth, you can try to give him cow's milk. Also, dairy piglets require mineral supplements. For this purpose, you can use red clay, charcoal or sod. For supplements put a separate dish, which should not get the sow. When a piglet turns 8-9 days old it should be fed with liquid oatmeal with milk, you can also give oatmeal jelly. From day 10, feeding small piglets should become more substantial. In his diet is to add bean hay, which is pre-finely chopped. For hay, a separate trough should be used. Water from the diet does not need to be excluded - it must always be present. Change the water should be as often as possible, also do not forget about the purity of the trough. Newborn piglets have a very small ventricle, so you need to feed them at least 8 times a day, but in small portions. If the pig is grown without a mother, then feeding is done 14-15 times a day from the nipple. Starting from two weeks of age, fresh herbs and peeled root vegetables are introduced into the piglet’s diet. If you give a piglet potatoes, then it should be boiled beforehand, peeled, and then crushed on a grater or mash thoroughly. Coarsely chopped potatoes or other root vegetables can cause harm to an animal's immature stomach.

    Piglets are great for mashed potatoes with skewers. It should be prepared shortly before feeding, as it disappears quickly, and diarrhea can start from the sour food of the baby. The remains of mashed potatoes or any other food should not be left for the next feeding, it is better to give them to adult pigs, and prepare the baby fresh.

    Giving small piglet roots, they need to be diluted with milk, so that the mixture is more nutritious and it is convenient for the animal to eat it.

    Starting from the age of 3 months, the piglets are released for walking and they are already fed with bulky food, whey and kitchen waste are also added to the diet. With half a year - walks of pigs should be stopped and begin to feed more high-calorie feed.



    The efficiency of pig breeding is most dependent on how and how pigs are fed. In the cost structure of pig production, the largest part (up to 70-80%) is feed. Therefore, their correct use is the key to efficient housekeeping.

    Of all environmental factors, feed and feeding conditions have the greatest impact on the success of fattening. Undernourishment of animals, the inferiority of the diet, especially for protein, vitamins and minerals, leads to a decrease in growth, lengthening the fattening period, over-expenditure of feed per unit of production and its appreciation.

    When choosing the type of fattening it is necessary to take into account the demand for pork of a particular quality. So, at present, the most popular among the population is lean pork, which is obtained by fattening young pigs to a live weight of 90-100 kg. However, fattening pigs to a body weight of 120-130 kg is economically more profitable than up to a weight of 100 kg. It should be borne in mind that it is also possible to obtain meat carcasses if fattening pigs of meat type or hybrids obtained from meat boars are put on fattening.

    Slaughter yield in pigs varies depending on their mass. So, when slaughtering pigs weighing 90-100 kg g, the yield of pork is 73%; when slaughtering, when it reaches a mass of 120-130 kg, it rises to 75-80%.

    When calculating the efficiency of fattening pigs to different body weight, it is necessary to take into account all the costs of obtaining and raising the animal. On average, 200 fodder units per head are consumed prior to fattening. For fattening up to the body weight of 100 kg, another 400 feed units are required. Thus, a pig weighing 100 kg consumes a total of 600 feed units, or 6 feed units (600: 100) per 1 kg of weight. According to the standards, the slaughter yield in pigs weighing 100 kg is 73%, i.e. 73 kg (100 kgH 73: 100). Consequently, in this case 8.36 feed units (600: 73 kg) will be spent per 1 kg of pure meat.

    When pigs are fattening to live weight of 120 kg, 150 feed units will be additionally consumed, a total of 750 (600 + 150).

    In this case, the cost per 1 kg of live weight will be 6.25 feed units, i.e., 0.25 feed units more than when fattening to a live weight of 100 kg. Due to the fact that the slaughter output in pigs weighing 120 kg is increased to 75% or more, 90 kg of meat (120 kg X 75: 100) is obtained from the pig, and 8.03 fodder units will be consumed per 1 kg of meat (750: 90), i.e., less than when fattening pigs up to a mass of 100 kg, moreover, the meat yield per head will increase by 17 kg (23%) and more.

    The efficiency of fattening pigs contributes significantly to the correct choice of feed and their preparation for feeding.

    1. Fodder, contributing to the formation of meat and high quality lard: cereals — barley, wheat, rye, peas, lentils, millet, and juicy — sugar and semi-sugar beets, carrots, pumpkins, potatoes. Potatoes in the last fattening period are given in limited quantities.

    Green feed - clover, nettle.

    Homemade Piglets for Fast Feeding: Some Practical Tips

    Animal feed - whey, skim milk, buttermilk.

    2. Fodder, slightly reducing the quality of pork: corn, buckwheat, wheat, rye and barley bran, beet molasses. When feeding these feeds with feeds of the first group in equal quantities, high quality pork is obtained.

    3. Feed, greatly reducing the quality of meat and fat: oats, bard, cake, soy. From such feed lard loses density and graininess, quickly turns yellow during storage, and the meat turns out to be loose, flabby, unsuitable for long storage.

    The quality of meat and fat is influenced by feed, which is fed to the pig in the last two months.

    Feed preparation. It is necessary to ensure that all the feed gilt ate completely and with appetite. To maintain the pig's appetite, feed should be specially prepared.

    Concentrates improve the taste of the entire feed cottage. Whole grain pigs chew badly, it is poorly digested and not everything is for future use. Ground grain feeds are digested better than others. With fine grinding, you can achieve some savings in feed.

    Concentrates prior to feeding can also be salted off or yeast. During malting, ground grain is poured with very hot water, mixed quickly and left in a closed container for 3-4 hours, so that the temperature of the mass is maintained at 55-60 °.

    It is possible to enrich grain with vitamins by germination. Bean grains (peas, vetch, lentils) are boiled. Table waste is used in pig feed only boiled, sprinkled with concentrates.

    Potatoes are boiled, but water is not used after cooking. Before cooking potatoes must be washed. Boiled potatoes mash and give the pigs warm, but not hot.

    Root vegetables are fed raw, peeled, and ground if they are given to the pig in a small amount, like a vitamin feed. If the roots (swede, beet), as well as zucchini and pumpkin serve as the main feed, they are crushed and boiled.

    Beets are ground after boiling. Water after cooking root vegetables are used for steaming roughage (hay dust, etc.). In the warm season, the roots and potatoes are boiled only for one feeding, at least for one day, and stored in a cold place so that the food is not soured.

    Hay is crushed (chopped), poured over with hot water or water after boiling the root crops and left for steaming for 2-3 hours. Fine hay dust can be mixed into the feed without prior preparation. It is better for the chaff to steam for 2 hours and give to the pig with root vegetables, potatoes or sprinkled with concentrates.

    Dairy feeds do not require special preparation, but they must be fed fresh or well fermented.

    Compound feeds, which are developed by specialists of trademarks belonging to the “Unity” group of companies, are always developed exclusively according to approved recipes. But in order to choose the right feed, you should understand which feed for pigs will be optimal in the conditions of your farm. On what should be a complete feed, we'll talk further.

    Without exception, feed for pigs can be divided into energy (corn, grain), protein (soybean meal, fish meal and peas), coarse (silage, beets, cuts) and by-products (whey, fodder yeast). Based on this, the experts of TM “Shchedra Niva”, “Top feed”, “Just feed” and “BestMix” create their own products using natural raw materials and highly effective feed additives.

    In the preparation of the diet of pigs should always take into account the characteristics of the feed. Your attention is invited to the table, based on which, you can choose the best food for your animals: