General information

How to yeast feed for chickens?

Pin
Send
Share
Send
Send


Yeast is a cheap but effective way to increase the nutritional value of rations for layers and broilers, to feed them with vitamins and easily digestible protein. It is easy to do at home. The use of yeast feed increases egg production in eggs and weight gain in meat breeds.

Yeast is a group of unicellular fungi that does not form mycelium and is devoid of fruiting bodies. They are so small that in 1 g of yeast there will be more than 20 billion individual organisms. This group includes more than one and a half thousand biological species.

Fodder yeast for chickens is grown specifically for poultry feed based on waste from distilleries, paper production, molasses, starch, and even petroleum fractions.

There are many varieties of these mushrooms. For the needs of the poultry industry use feed, at worst - bakeries of good quality.

Food supplement

If you regularly yeast feed for chickens, you can achieve several positive changes in the condition of chickens at once:

  • Yeast normalizes digestion and increases appetite, which leads to rapid weight gain in chickens, therefore, when fattening broilers, they are included in the diet,
  • Chickens regularly receiving feed with yeast are more frequent. The percentage of fertilized eggs rises,
  • Top-dressing by shedding or balding yeast leads to the fact that they more quickly overgrow with down and feathers, the feather cover becomes lush, smooth and shiny,
  • For birds of all ages and breeds, yeast feed is the prevention of beriberi, especially in the winter-time poor in vitamin feed. Immunity is also being strengthened.

Yeast contains three essential and important for chickens fatty acids:

  1. Linolenic acid is part of the Omega-6 family of acids that help preserve the health of body cells.
  2. Oleic acid is needed for proper metabolism.
  3. Arachidonic acid is responsible for maintaining immunity and fighting infections.

Yeast Feed

Yeast enriches feed, increases their nutritional value and taste for chickens. Suitable for this grain mixtures, complex, including root crops and other additives. The biological essence of the process is the rapid reproduction of yeast fungi in a favorable environment.

In the process they:

  • Produce protein compounds, increasing the overall nutritional value of the feed,
  • They start the processes of alcoholic fermentation and reproduction of lactic acid bacteria, as a result of putrefactive bacteria lose their ability to multiply.

The protein produced by yeast, as close as possible to the protein of animal origin.

Independently make the yeast chicken feed simply:

  1. Take 10-20 g of yeast. It is better to take fodder: you can buy them at pet stores or in agricultural markets. If this is not possible, you can take the usual food, which are sold in briquettes in supermarkets. When buying you need to pay attention to the date of manufacture and shelf life. Dry granulated taking is not recommended.
  2. For the sponge method, the third part of a portion of the grain mixture prepared for yeast is diluted with warm water or serum to a thick slurry and the whole portion of yeast is added. After 6 hours, mix with the rest of the portion and keep at rest for another 3 hours.
  3. For a straightforward method, the yeast is mixed with the entire dose of the feed mixture and left to ferment for 6-9 hours.

Yeast food is stored for long. In the refrigerator up to two days, in frozen form - up to a week. Its rate per day per head is 15-20 g.

  • For an optimal process flow, the temperature should be between 20 and 25 degrees Celsius. The yeast does not mix with dry grain, the final mixture should be of consistency, like thick porridge.
  • You can add some sugar. 2-3 times per hour the mixture should be stirred.

More valuable is the yeast feed in the cold season, when there is no fresh grass in the hen’s diet, so the need for vitamin supplements is increasing.

Also yeast feed is useful for quails.

There are no strict rules on how to give yeast to chickens correctly, but there are recommendations:

  • The amount of yeast should not exceed 30g per 1 kg of feed,
  • The daily rate of yeast feed per 1 head - 20g,
  • If chickens start diarrhea or swelling of the joints, the yeast is excluded from the diet.

Feed composition

Rations from one or two ingredients, cereals and potatoes, will not lead to the rapid development of a broiler or a good egg production.

On the contrary, in order to save the budget and prevent diseases, the diet should be balanced and contain everything necessary for optimal growth and development of these birds.

This is important because:

  1. The lack or excess of trace elements and vitamins leads to the fact that chickens begin to peck each other's backs and heads, which leads to disease and death.
  2. The lack of substances necessary for cellular nutrition and vital activity of the body during the period of active growth of young animals, slows down the fattening, interferes with weight gain and becomes the cause of growing diseases.

Domestic birds are fed mixtures with a high content of carbohydrates, of which birds receive the necessary energy. But in the diet must be present proteins and fats.

Protein starvation leads to loss of feathers, stopping of egg production, weakening of immunity.

It is better absorbed by chickens amino acids from soybeans and corn, so these two products need to be included in the diet. Since these are large grains, it is better to crush them.

Feeding rates

Chickens consume a lot of feed.

They are omnivorous, but feed them according to the rules:

  1. Give food to chickens strictly on schedule.
  2. Portions are normalized.
  3. With a standard three meals a day, breakfast is served immediately after waking up, dinner is an hour before the lights are turned off or chickens are driven into the chicken coop, and lunch is exactly midway between breakfast and dinner.
  4. Homemade mash is given for breakfast, mash or mixed feed at lunch time, crushed grain or mixed feed for dinner.

These rules are the same for all domestic birds, more detailed schemes differ for laying hens and broilers.

Feeding greatly affects the amount of eggs produced by the chicken.

Birds begin to deteriorate worse when feeding:

  • Excessive or insufficient,
  • Poor vitamins and minerals, especially calcium,
  • It is not given according to the schedule, but at any time.

Up to two months of age, hens of egg breeds are not restricted in feed. At this time, the main organs of the chicken develop, and poor nutrition leads to a delay in the development and underdevelopment of the main organs.

  • After this period, future layers begin to restrict food and feed at the rate. In the first 2 months of life, chickens gain weight and grow fat, which leads to a decrease in egg production.
  • Since five months, adolescent chicks are transferred to the ration of laying hens. From this moment until the start of egg-laying, their diet should include an increased amount of protein food necessary for the development of reproductive organs.

It can be meat or fish meal, any lactic acid products, even broths. During this period, yeast is especially useful for laying hens.

  • As soon as the chicken begins to trot, the percentage of protein in its food is reduced, but the percentage of calcium is increased. They are rich in: chalk, shell, shell. On the day of each hen it is necessary to eat 3-4 g of calcium.
  • Hens laying white eggs should be given half of the calcium powder, half should be given in 2-4 mm slices. Carrying the yellow proportion of the powder should be 30%, and the rest is in pieces. This is due to the difference in shell formation.

Since leaving the egg, broilers are not restricted in food. The first 10 days of life, the chicks should have round the clock access to food, then they are fed by the hour.

Nutrition of broilers is carried out either by ready-made or home-made mixes.

The first is divided into:

They are given strictly at the age recommended by the manufacturer, since they contain a different percentage of substances needed by broilers.

Power Features:

  1. The first food kids receive during the first days of life. It consists of a mixture of finely chopped tough eggs and semolina.
  2. From the second day, finely chopped greens and dairy products are introduced into the diet. Fresh milk can not be given, from him chickens diarrhea.
  3. On the fifth day, sources of minerals and vitamins are added to the diet.
  4. From the seventh day, broilers are transferred to mixtures for older age, at which time yeast-fed feeds can be started.

Important Supplements

Broilers are growing rapidly, so they have an increased need for minerals that help the formation of skeletal bones.

There are three such minerals:

Provide the body with these elements can be, if added to food:

  • Meat and bone meal,
  • Fish meal,
  • Crushed shellfish or chalk,
  • Pounded shell.

Vitaminization

Broilers need vitamins. You can purchase ready-made vitamins or probiotics. They should be labeled as for broilers. Give them according to the instructions on the package.

Premix for broilers - a mixture of vitamins, amino acids, minerals and biological substances that suppress the activity of microbes. Often they contain antibiotics, this must necessarily be written on the package.

The proportions in the premix are met in such a way as to fully cover the needs of the chicken. Premixes are part of ready-made feed for broilers, but you can buy them separately and independently mix them in home rations according to the manufacturer's instructions.

In the green season, you can yourself enter into the diet finely chopped greens. This is a free source of vitamins.

Most chicks like:

  • Dandelion greens,
  • Alfalfa,
  • Pyrei,
  • Spurge,
  • Colza,
  • Clover,
  • Scalded nettle.

If there is no greenery in the street, for the same purpose you can produce hay flour or germinated wheat or barley grain.

Recipe:

  1. A glass of grain is poured with water so that it is barely covered.
  2. Cover with foil.
  3. Put in a warm bright place.
  4. When most of the grain sprouts, it is crushed.

If there are no devices for crushing grain in the farm, you can do it with a meat grinder or a coffee grinder. This source of vitamins is not stored for a long time, it is necessary to feed it to broilers immediately after grinding.

Ready recipes

Independently mix ready-made products for birds easily. The main ingredients for this are grown independently or bought on the collective farm market.

Home-made feed mixtures are not inferior to the purchased ones, but have disadvantages:

  • It takes more time to cook,
  • If you buy all the components, then it will be more expensive than the purchased feed.

Despite these disadvantages, poultry farmers actively use homemade feed.

What should be included in the diet of chickens

High bird productivity affects the consumption of large quantities of feed. But not every owner pays close attention to what his chickens eat. The lack or excess of trace elements leads to the fact that the birds begin to peck at each other, get sick and show low productivity. Especially the lack of impact on the young, which affects the survival of livestock and can often cause a case of death.

The rate of feeding depends on which direction the herd belongs to:

  • egg,
  • meat,
  • mixed
  • broiler

The average amount of food that individuals should receive for a mixed or egg direction after 21 weeks of life is 150 grams per bird per day.

Most farmers feed three times a day, but there is a difference in the rations of birds before and during the egg-producing period. Up to 32 days of laying hens you can feed plenty, and with the onset of egg-laying, it is already necessary to begin to limit the birds so as not to cause obesity, which will lead to inevitable health problems.

Since 21 weeks, the hens are transferred to the rations of adult birds, without a transition period. This technique allows you to quickly develop reproductive organs. As soon as the first eggs begin to appear, the need for calcium will increase, and until this point the birds should receive as much as possible with protein.

Any feed is determined by the most important criteria:

  • energy,
  • raw protein
  • 13 amino acids
  • raw fat
  • linoleic acid
  • raw fiber,
  • 14 vitamins
  • 11 mineral compounds.

The most important indicator is the energy that determines the direction in the poultry industry. Egg chickens spend about 40% of their energy during laying. The required number of calories for which the exchange energy is calculated can be obtained from:

  • squirrel,
  • fat
  • nitrogen-free extractives.

What components need chickens

If the diet is developed on its own, then every breeder should be aware of what nutrients the birds need. The table will tell about the most necessary and significant amino acids.

Meat Bird 8–23 week

Meat Poultry 24–49 week

Meat bird 50 week and older

Egg bird 9–21 weeks

Egg bird 22–47 week

Egg bird 48 week and older

What you need to know about essential vitamins and minerals

Not only energy and protein are important for chickens, micro- and macroelements, as well as vitamin complexes play a special role. Most of the owners, purchasing feed, first of all consider these indicators.

Despite the fact that the need for vitamins is not so high, in birds with a shortage of them may develop a deficit. An unbalanced diet, even in a short period of time will lead to the fact that feathers start falling out and egg-laying stops.

But all the chickens need minerals without exception. Especially egg breeds need calcium, per day for each individual should account for at least 4.5 grams.

It is important to know that for birds, in which the white shell, ½ of the calcium standard is given in powder form, and the second half in granular form. With a brown shell, 30% of the microelement is given in the form of a powder, and the missing part in the form of large grains. This distribution is associated with the term of the complete formation of the shell. White color is caused by the fact that the formation occurs when the lights are off. And this means that chickens need rapidly absorbed calcium in powder form.

Meat and broiler breeds need phosphorus, calcium and magnesium, which help in the proper formation of the skeleton. In order for this process to take place as quickly as possible, the birds need to be provided with a sufficient amount of mineral complexes.

About the methods of feed preparation

The balance of the composition - not the most important factor in the choice of food, plays an important role how it will be digested. To increase digestibility, the feed must be properly prepared. The table will show the most popular methods of preparing mixtures for feeding.

Use all owners of chickens. Small fractions are widely used for feeding young animals. The young age is fed, moving to larger granules — pressed.

Heated feed for chickens to enhance the absorption of food. In the frosts, not only wet food is heated, but also water, including adult birds. Boil some types of vegetables included in the diet of poultry. Drying is used during summer harvesting for the winter.

Treatment with various types of acids

Practically not used in private households. It will require careful calculations, which are made only in large-scale production or factory.

Use of infrared radiation

It refers to costly measures that are applied at the level of industrial factories. The use of rays allows you to disinfect food, destroy harmful microflora.

It is used almost everywhere in all farms, regardless of size. From a small farm to a large poultry complex.

Yeast Technology

Initially, the feed is crushed, the success of the process directly depends on the size of the fractions, the less - the better. It is necessary to take:

  • feed in the amount of 1 kg
  • wet yeast - 20 grams, dry yeast in the amount of two tablespoons,
  • warm water - one and a half liters.

The capacity in which the yeast will take place must be large. This is due to the fact that during the process the mixture will increase in volume several times. Water temperature should not exceed more than 40 degrees, so that the yeast does not die. The room for the process must have good ventilation and a temperature reading not lower than +20 degrees. There is nothing complicated about the technology itself.

How to breed yeast:

  1. In a faceted glass dilute the yeast, they are stirred until all the lumps disappear.
  2. The resulting mixture is poured into warm water or milk whey in a liter volume. Re-stirring occurs.
  3. The resulting solution is poured into the grain and sugar is added in the amount of several spoons to the wish.
  4. The mixture is left alone for 8 hours.
  5. If during the first two hours the liquid begins to be actively absorbed, then add warm water, but not more than two glasses.
  6. While cooking, the mixture should be thoroughly mixed and preferably more than once. It is recommended to do this once every 60 minutes.
  7. With insufficient mixing, the effectiveness of the process itself is greatly reduced. At the breeding stage, the yeast needs oxygen, which they receive in sufficient quantity with stirring.

After cooking, food is given at the rate of no more than 20 grams per head per day. Важно помнить, что долгое время такие корма не хранятся, исключение составляет глубокая заморозка, но и здесь они смогут пролежать не более 7 дней.

Существует еще два способа дрожжевания: использование закваски и опары. Но описанный выше процесс относится к наименее трудоемкому и простому.

Основные принципы дрожжевания: зачем, как и почему?

If the poultry farmer uses special industrial feed for poultry, then there is no need to yeast these feeds.

Introduction to the diet of poultry fodder yeast helps to enrich the feed protein

In the complete feed, all components are in a balanced form, it is not necessary to add additives to it.

But you can not always buy high-quality complete feed. Poultry farmers are forced to make feed mixtures according to their own recipe.

In addition to the grain basis (chopped corn, wheat, barley, peas), in the menu of chickens they use: fish and bone meal, cake, grass meal, chalk, salt, vegetables, fodder yeast.

reference. Yeast is the lowest group of mushrooms, single-celled. In the sleeping dry state, they are a powder of a large fraction (granules slightly less than 1 mm) of yellowish-beige color. Mixed with warm water and grain base yeast begins to actively multiply, enriching the product with vitamins and increasing its nutritional value.

Why do chickens give fodder yeast

Laying at peak egg laying needs nutrition with a high content of protein, vitamins and microelements.

Laying at peak egg laying needs nutrition with high content of protein, vitamins and microelements

Feed yeast contains:

  • 40-50% protein available for poultry,
  • B vitamins,
  • riboflavin,
  • nicotinic and folic acids,
  • choline,
  • thiamine.

The inclusion of yeast-fed feed (especially in winter) in the hen ration increases egg production by 20–25%. The weight of each egg increases by 15-20%.

The introduction of yeast in feed in the spring increases the fertility of eggs and the quality of hatching.

When growing poultry for meat, yeasts help the body absorb nutrients from the feed more fully.

In broilers and young turkeys, an accelerated set of muscle mass is noted (by 12-16% compared with poultry not receiving yeast).

The entire bird improves appetite and strengthens the immune system.

How to give fodder yeast

When buying fodder yeast in veterinary pharmacies and pet stores, you should pay attention to the shelf life of the product.

Expired yeast can cause diarrhea and bloating, they can not be fed to animals.

The unreasonable yeast dacha can lead to unpleasant consequences for the health of the bird.

If you exceed the norm of 5 grams of yeast per 1 adult chicken, poultry may experience diarrhea, cannibalism, eggs acquire an unpleasant smell and taste.

Overdue yeast can cause diarrhea and bloating

Feed yeast is introduced into the cereal mixture in a dry form at the recommended dose.if dry feeding is used. Immediately before giving a portion of feed, dry yeast powder is mixed with grain grinding.

If the poultry farmer feeds the bird with wet masses, it is more convenient to apply yeast.

It happens:

Important!A pot for preparing feed needs to take a large displacement, filling it with a product no more than half. In the process of fermentation, the grain mass due to the development of yeast increases significantly in volume.

Cooking technique:

  1. Opara is prepared from a liter of water with a temperature of +40 degrees, 500 g of crushed grain and 20 g of yeast. The mass is thoroughly mixed and left in a warm place for 4 hours. Another 2.5 kg of ground grain and 2 liters of water are added to the finished brew. Thoroughly kneaded mass is left to warm for another 4 hours. Ready food is included in the composition of the mash in the amount of 20% of the total mass.
  2. Bezoparny way simple and suitable for novice poultry farmers. Per 1 kg of crushed grain consumed 200 g of yeast and 1.5 liters of water. All ingredients combine and mix well. Leave the mass to ripen at 7 o'clock. The fermentation process requires 2-3 times to knead the mass, adding warm water, if necessary.
  3. The starter feed preparation method consists in dissolving 20 g of dry yeast in 1 liter of warm water. To the solution add 1 kg of shreds and insist a mass of 5-6 hours. Next, the resulting leaven is added to a portion of grain feed, calculated for one cottage for the entire livestock. Add warm water to a thick porridge and insist another 8 hours.

The remaining leaven can be stored in a glass jar in a refrigerator for up to 7 days.

Important!Ready yeast-fed food should be immediately fed. Keep it should not be.

What is yeast

Yeast is a single-celled fungus that is used to ferment the liquid mass of the product. Fodder yeast is a light brown powder, used to stimulate the growth of birds. Yeast is a process of fermentation of ground grain feed with yeast starter. During processing, the mixture is additionally enriched with vitamins and vegetable insulin. The biological value of the product increases, as well as the digestibility of nutrients. The goal of yeast is to improve the appetite of chickens, increase egg production, accelerate weight gain by meat breeds. Especially important food with the use of enriched feed in the winter season, because enriches the diet of chickens with missing vitamins and trace elements. Yeast can be grain, cereals, components of plant origin. When enriched in the diet, you can add meat and bone meal to increase the nutritional value.

The action of yeast fungi has been used in food production for several millennia. Themselves fungi today there are more than 1,500 species. You can get them from almost any raw materials of plant origin, as well as from milk. Only some of them are widely used in the food industry. The name of the yeast reflects the main purpose of their use.

  • bakery - used for baking. Are grown up in the environment enriched with oxygen, sugar and nitrogenous compounds. Available in dry and wet form.
  • wineries - can be observed in the form of plaque on grape berries. They contribute to improving the taste of wine products.
  • milk - formed in sourdough. Used for the preparation of lactic acid products.
  • beer houses - prepared by fermenting wort, which is obtained from high-quality hops.
  • alcohol - These are strains created specifically for the alcohol industry. Their task is to optimally quickly ferment the product.

Feed yeast can be:

  • hydrolysis - created from wood and dry agricultural waste,
  • classic - derived from alcohol production waste,
  • protein-vitamin - grown on waste non-vegetable raw materials.

Should I give

Yeast is high in protein. In the course of their life, they oxidize glucose and carbon, turning them into energy. Their presence in the diet increases the energy value of food, enriches it with proteins and vitamins. The layer spends 40% of the energy received from food for the production of eggs. Winter egg production falls due to lack of energy, which enters little in the body, so yeast is very desirable in the diet of laying hens. They also improve the assimilation of food by the body and contribute to the intensive build-up of muscle tissue by broilers. They increase the weight of eggs and their incubation properties, as well as increase fertility by 15%.

The nutritional value

Feed yeast may contain from 40 to 60% protein. From vitamins and trace elements contain choline, thiamine, biotin, nicotinic acid, riboflavin, folic acid. They are a natural concentrate of B vitamins. Riboflavin influences tissue respiration and overall metabolism, as well as hatchability of eggs. Lecithin, which is part, affects cell metabolism. By the amount of lecithin, baker's yeast is second only to egg yolk. The quantitative composition of vitamins and microelements in yeast may vary due to the type of fungi, their cultivation conditions and other factors. Special studies on quantitative changes in the nutritional value after yeast have not been conducted. We studied the quantitative indicators of the productivity of birds fed feed - enriched and normal.

The benefits of the application:

For eggs:

  • increases fertility,
  • size increases
  • the egg production of chickens in winter increases by 23.4%,

For meat:

  • accelerates the growth of muscle mass (for chickens, this figure is 15.6%),

For birds:

  • improves appetite
  • prevents vitamin deficiency,
  • increases digestibility of feed,
  • stimulates the production of immune cells
  • regulates protein metabolism
  • increases protein digestibility
  • The supply of beneficial vitamins and trace elements increases.

disadvantages

Enriched feed is given to birds only in the period from November to April. during the absence of greens in the diet. The presence of grass and sun in the summer is sufficient to maintain all the processes in the body of chickens. Fungi in the summer diet lead to an excess of protein and nitrogen compounds. The following pathologies arise from an excess of proteins:

  • diarrhea in chickens,
  • inflammation of the cloaca as a result of metabolic disorders,
  • joint inflammation
  • cannibalism in the pack.
In order to avoid painful conditions, yeast food is introduced in several runs, starting with small dosages - 5-7 g per chicken. If the disease manifests itself suddenly, it is necessary to reduce the amount of enriched feed by 50-70%.

Yeast methods

Pre-grain mass is crushed. For the right process, it is important that the fractions be as small as possible.

Yeast methods are:

Features:

  • Water temperature should not exceed body temperature i. 36-38 ° C. At higher temperatures, the fungi die.
  • The capacity in which the mass is stirred should be 2/3 more than the volume of the diluted feed, since during fermentation the volume increases.
  • Yeast should be dissolved completely, without the formation of lumps. To speed up the process, you can add 1-2 tablespoons of sugar.

Sponge method

Sponge preparation method consists of two stages:

  • kneading dough
  • yeast feed.

The brew is prepared from 200 g of grain mass and 10 g of yeast diluted in 0.5 l of warm water. Suitable opara within 4-5 hours. Then it is mixed with the rest of the grain - 800 g and a liter of warm water. Insist 4 hours.

Method without sponge

Recipe: 1.5 l of warm water and 0.2 g of yeast are taken for 1 kg of grain mass. Combine the yeast mass and grain, mix and leave to ferment for 6-7 hours. In the process of fermentation, the mass must be periodically mixed, since air access is important for work. If during the fermentation process, the liquid is fully absorbed into the mixture, you need to add 1-2 glasses of warm water. The mass can be given to chickens after 8 hours, at the rate of 20 g per 1 chicken. Yeast can be given daily or every other day. You can store ready enriched feed for no more than 1 day. It is permissible to freeze part of the feed for several days, but the benefit of using it is significantly reduced.

More effective yeast

To make each method of yeast effective and quality, you can improve the composition of the feed mass by enrichment:

  • Warm water can be replaced with warm milk whey. Whey will supplement the mass with milk sugar, whey protein, casein, as well as trace elements - potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron. In addition, the serum contains vitamins of group B, ascorbic acid, tocopherol, choline and others.
  • Adding sugar increases the amount of food for the development of yeast and increases the nutritional value of feed by 15-20%.
  • Adding vegetable mass - boiled beets, potatoes, pumpkins increases the variety and quantity of the vitamin complex.
  • Adding sprouted grains also improves feed composition. Germinated grains are biostimulants. They have antioxidant properties, normalize metabolism, beneficially affect the digestive process and contribute to the development of beneficial intestinal microflora.

It is necessary to use yeast. Yeast feed increases the nutritional value of feed, reduces feed costs, improves livestock productivity, thereby increasing the profitability of the farm.

Standard feed rates for domestic chickens

Chickens, like birds with high productivity, consume a lot of feed in a quantitative ratio. But not many people pay attention to the qualitative composition of the chicken trough. At the same time, the lack or excess of trace elements, vitamins leads to peck, disease, poor productivity. And the deficiency of the main nutrients in young stockings results in a low survival rate and bird death.

It is important to pay attention to the quality of the composition of feed for chickens.

The existing norms of feeding chickens vary, depending on the direction of chickens - egg, meat or broiler. On average, an egg bird or meat-egg bird after 21 weeks should eat at least 150 g per day per head.

In feeding egg chickens, the three-phase method is used, since the needs of the bird during the ryktok period and during the active egg-laying are different. Up to 7-8 weeks, layers, as well as meat crosses, feed unlimitedly. Further, for egg breeds diet is limited. During this period, the future layer quickly grows fat, which will adversely affect its productivity in the future.

Approximate ration of laying hens

For meat chickens and broilers, food restriction does not apply - the productivity of these areas is directly proportional to their feed intake.

The productivity of meat chickens depends on their feed intake.

At 21 weeks, future hens are dramatically transferred to the diet of an adult chicken egg. This contributes to the rapid development of reproductive organs. The need for calcium will double, but only after the first egg was laid. Until that time, birds will need increased levels of protein nutrients.

From the moment the first egg is laid, the ration of the laying egg must be changed

The nutritional value of any feed for chickens is determined by 43 criteria:

  • energy,
  • raw protein
  • 13 amino acids
  • raw fat
  • linoleic acid
  • crude fiber,
  • 14 vitamins
  • 11 minerals.

One of the most important indicators - the need for energy. It is due to the direction of chickens. For example, up to 40% of all the energy of egg chickens goes to laying eggs. Calories in which the calculated energy is calculated, the bird can get from:

  • proteins,
  • fat
  • nitrogen-free extractives (BEV).

40% of the energy of egg chickens goes to laying eggs

Important! The main BEV - carbohydrates. It is from them that birds get the maximum amount of energy.

When calculating the energy per 100 g of feed, the digestibility of the nutrient and the number of calories per gram are taken into account:

  • 1 g of protein - 4.2 kcal / g,
  • in 1 g of fat - 9.3 kcal / g,
  • 1 g BEV - 4.14 kcal / g.

The main energy sources for chickens are cereals (up to 70%) and cake (up to 20%). The number of calories must necessarily be combined with the protein composition of the feed. If chickens get a lot of energy, but there is little protein, then the birds quickly suffer from protein starvation, stop rushing, lose feathers, and quickly become ill with infections.

Chicken Feed

The need for basic nutrients

When self-drafting diet you need to have an idea about the norms of consumption of nutrients. The table shows the main indicators depending on the direction of chickens. Not all 43 criteria are used, but only the most crucial and significant, including essential amino acids. Energy is given in calories per 100 g of feed, the rest is in percent.

The most available hens amino acids of corn and soy. These products must be used for the preparation of feed. At the same time, heat treatment of soybeans and corn reduces the availability and digestibility of amino acids.

Corn and soybeans must be used for feed production.

Required minerals and vitamins

In addition to energy and protein, all birds in need of harmonious development need macro- and microelements and vitamins. In recent years, much attention has been paid to the content of these substances in ready-made and self-made feed.

The need for vitamins and minerals is minimal, but because of this, the birds quickly develop their deficiency. Enough unbalanced feeding for a couple of weeks is enough for the chickens to have symptoms: cessation of laying, loss of feathers.

Feathering loss is one of the symptoms of unbalanced feeding.

The need for minerals is high in birds of all directions. For egg hens, the need for calcium balance is determined by egg production. The daily requirement of calcium in rocks with high egg mass reaches 4.5 grams.

At the same time there are differences in the size of the granules, depending on the color of the shell. Chickens who carry eggs with white shells must offer half of calcium in powder and half in granules 2-4 mm in diameter. If the shell is brown, then 30% of the calcium is offered in powdered form, and the rest is in large grains. This difference is connected with the timing of the final formation of the shell - the white shell is formed after turning on the light, later. This means that the bird will need readily absorbable powdered calcium.

Calcium granules

Important! Easily assimilable powdered calcium already after 30 minutes is in the composition of the shell.

For meat and broiler breeds, which have low egg production, the need for minerals is due to large bones. Phosphorus, calcium, magnesium make up the basic structure of bone tissue. Its rapid formation in young large breeds of chickens requires a large amount of minerals in the feed. This need is provided by fish meal, meat and bone meal and calcium in any form.

Рыбная и мясокостная мука

Потребность в основных витаминах – таблица

Витамины – это биологически активные вещества, которые обеспечивают процессы обмена в организмах всех живых существ. Vitamins are part of enzymes, hormones, an essential component of many reactions, stimulate immune reactions. Such a high biological activity of vitamins explains why productivity is increased so quickly and efficiently when balanced vitamin premixes are added to the diet.

Vitamin premix for chickens

Why you need premixes

Some of the vitamins - C, E - are natural antioxidants. It is proved that the presence in the diet of chickens of these substances improves the nutritional properties of eggs. Namely, it reduces the amount of harmful cholesterol in the yolk. Such eggs can be eaten with atherosclerosis - a high level of cholesterol in the blood.

The need of chickens of different directions in the main vitamins is presented in the table. This is the norm for 1 ton of feed. Fat-soluble vitamins A and D are given in millions of units, the rest - in grams.

These values ​​are indicative. If the bird is purchased from the manufacturing plant, then it is accompanied by documents with detailed recommendations on feeding.

Ryabushka premix for laying hens

Special methods of feed preparation

A balanced nutrient composition is not all that birds need. It is also important digestibility of food. To improve the absorption of nutrients feed prepared in advance. There are several ways to prepare feed mixtures.

Food needs to be prepared, this will improve nutrient absorption.

Mechanical:

  • cleaning
  • grinding,
  • dosing
  • mixing,
  • compacting.

This method of feed preparation is used by all farmers. Grinding fractions is used for growing chickens and pullets - the first weeks they peck only fine chips. Older chickens definitely need to offer large granules - whole grains and compressed feed. It is proved that small crumb reluctantly pecks chickens, as it sticks to the beak. As a result, productivity and weight gain decreases.

Large granules and whole grains are suitable for feeding adult chickens

Thermal:

Heated feed is used in chickens - such food is better and faster absorbed, which is important for growing chicks. In winter, you can warm up the water and wet food for adult chickens - this will allow for a long time not to freeze. Cooking is assumed for products that need to be pre-cooked - potatoes, fish. Drying is widely used in the preparation of fodder for the winter - nettle, clover and other herbs are dried and in the form of grass meal added to the diet in cold weather.

Dried nettle can be used in the diet of chickens in the cold

Chemical:

  • acid treatment
  • alkali treatment
  • ammonization,
  • oxidation.

Chemical methods of feed preparation are little known in private farms. These methods require careful calculations, which are possible only in large-scale industries and factories. Ammonization is the saturation of fodder fractions (silage, beet pulp) with nitrogenous bases.

Chemical methods of feed preparation are used only in large-scale production plants and factories.

Important! Artificial ammonization of feed is used only with a lack of natural protein in food.

Electric:

  • IR processing,
  • UV treatment,
  • sorting,
  • grinding.

The impact of electrical methods of preparing food is quite expensive and inaccessible to private farmsteads. In the conditions of industrial manufacture of compound feeds, ultraviolet and infrared processing disinfects products, destroying harmful microflora. It is convenient to use these methods for grinding and sorting feed - this allows you to quickly get separated fractions of the desired size.

UV treatment destroys the harmful microflora of products

Biological:

  • ensiling
  • fermentation,
  • malting
  • germination,
  • yeast

In more detail later in the article we will talk about yeast. This is an easy, affordable way even for a beginner farmer to improve the quality of feed. The positive side of yeast:

  • enriches the mixture with high-grade protein,
  • promotes the appearance of beneficial bacteria,
  • at times increases the amount of vitamins of group B,
  • improves the taste of the feed.

The achievement of this result occurs due to the proliferation of yeast in the feed mixture. At the same time, it is the carbohydrate content that is important, since only these components are able to ferment. Therefore, the feed must contain barley, corn, oats, beets.

1 - Barley. 2 - Corn. 3 - Beetroot. 4 - Oats. Components that are capable of being baked are needed in the feed.

Other Yeast Options

Above described the most simple, straightforward method of yeast. There are also:

  • sponge method
  • starter method.

For sponge yeast, one-fifth of the feed is taken - 200 g per kilogram. 400 ml of warm water is poured in and 10 g of yeast is applied. Everything is stirred and left in the room with good ventilation for 4-6 hours. After this time, the opara is a foamy mixture. There is added the rest of the feed and another liter of water. After another 4 hours the product will be completely ready.

The starter method implies less yeast. For it, use a third or half of the food, which is supposed to yeast. 10 g of yeast and warm water are added - to the consistency of a thick talker. After 6 hours, stirring occasionally, get ready sourdough. Part of it can be used to obtain further starter. And the second half is mixed with food and water in a ratio of 1 to 1.2. After keeping for 2-3 hours the feed is ready.

Compound feed for chickens independently. Recipes

Cooking food with their own hands is relatively inexpensive, because you can combine the ingredients in different ways, depending on their value. By adding a portion of the feed that has gone through the yeast, excellent productivity results can be achieved with minimal financial costs for feeding. Consider some recipes for homemade chicken feed.

By making chicken feed, you can combine ingredients in different ways.

  1. Corn - 40 g
  2. Wheat - 20 g
  3. Boiled potatoes - 50 g.
  4. Sunflower cake - 10 g.
  5. Meat and bone meal or fish meal - 10 g.
  6. Vegetables - carrots, pumpkin, greens - 40 g.
  7. Mel - 3 years
  8. Shell - in a separate bowl.

If this is the summer version of the feed, then the greens and vegetables are fresh, and the grain is all offered dry. Potatoes, flour and cake are given in the morning as a mash. Vegetables and greens - during the day. Grain is offered for the night.

Vegetables and herbs can be used for day feeding of chickens

Important! If rodents can enter the chicken coop, the feeder with the remaining grain is removed overnight.

In the winter version, mash food is offered warm. Part of the grain is replaced by germinated - it is rich in vitamins and is much better absorbed. Vegetables can be offered frozen, greens - dry. A part of greens and vegetables is successfully replaced by germinated grain and fodder that has gone through yeast. This composition supports the productivity and health of chickens in the winter.

In the winter version of the grain can be replaced by germinated

Alternative feed:

  • wheat - 40 g,
  • barley - 30 g,
  • boiled potatoes - 40 g,
  • sunflower cake - 15 g,
  • meat and bone meal - 10 g,
  • greens, vegetables - 50 g,
  • chalk - 3 years

Feed chalk can also be used in the diet of chickens

Similar to the previous feed, this amount of food is divided into three meals: wet mash from the morning, vegetables during the day and grain for the night.

Pin
Send
Share
Send
Send