Amur velvet is a perennial with a spreading crown belonging to the Rutov family. With its impressive size tree with confidence can claim to be a giant. Now it is actively used for landscaping parks, streets, gardens.
This is a beautiful and durable plant that performs not only a decorative function, but also cures many diseases. Its other names are phellodendron, Amur cork tree. Corky was named because the surface of the bark is wrinkled and velvety.
Place of growth
The tree grows alone or in small groups. In our country it is widespread on Sakhalin, the Kuriles, in the Khabarovsk Territory, in the Far East. It also grows in other countries ─ Japan, Korea, China.
Velvet prefers fells, mountain slopes no higher than seven hundred meters above sea level, deciduous forests. This relict plant, considered a living natural monument. The history of its appearance is reduced to the times of the ice age. Domestic samples began to be imported and bred now in new territories ─ in Asia, America, Europe, in the Caucasus.
This dioecious deciduous tree is a long-lived, growing in one place for up to three centuries. Appearance has similarities with the ash of ordinary.
The height reaches a maximum of 26-28 meters, and the growth rate is very rapid. The thickness of the trunk is 1-1.5 meters. It is covered with gray bark, velvety and soft to the touch. In young plants, it is completely smooth and has a silvery sheen. After cutting the cork layer, the bark darkens.
Thanks to a powerful core system, an impressive plant mass is well maintained.
Dark green odnoportepye leaf plates have a lanceolate shape, located on the central petioles. The edges are serrated, which gives them a decorative look. When rubbing the leaves in the palms of them comes a specific resinous smell. They bloom in late May or even early summer. Krone tent on a spacious area and highly raised in the forest.
Flowers small size, inconspicuous, collected in inflorescences. Petals have a yellow-green tint. The flowering period of Amur velvet falls on the beginning of summer. At this time, insects are actively engaged in collecting nectar. For the first time the tree blooms only in the 18-19th year of life.
The fruits have a spherical shape and a glossy surface that looks like pearls. Inedible, have a peculiar smell. Maximum they keep on the tree until the middle of winter.
Ripening berries occurs in September. Harvesting lasts from August to early autumn. One tree gives about ten pounds of berries. Before storage, be sure to wilt them outdoors. In one berry from 5 to 10 seeds. The latter have a patterned surface and drop-shaped form.
Growing phellodendron is a painstaking and meticulous process, because it is extended in time. To successfully grow it, you must comply with certain conditions. First of all, it is the right place for planting a tree. Since the breed is light-loving, the plot should be well lit or at least with penumbra. Shaded areas are highly undesirable. The soil needs weakly acidic, moist and fertile. Sand is absolutely not suitable. Stagnation of groundwater is not allowed. The right time of year is early spring, when the earth is already warm a little.
- When planting, it is important to take into account the life expectancy of Amur velvet and its future dimensions. Nearby should not be buildings or laid communications.
- Planting is carried out by grown-up seedlings. Best of all, if it will be adults, six-year-old plants. They can be purchased in specialized stores. Since they are well tolerated transplant, then very soon take root in the new site.
- Planting is carried out in the autumn or spring periods.
- If several trees are planted, then an interval of at least 5 meters should be maintained between them. This space is required for each instance for a comfortable existence.
- Preparation of a landing hole. Its size should exceed the size of the root system of a young plant by a third.
- If the soil has a higher density, then a drainage layer consisting of crushed bricks should be laid in the pit.
- Top with a nutrient mixture. Suitable composition: turf ground, humus, river sand.
- Straighten the roots, put a sapling, sprinkle with earth.
- Provide abundant watering plants. Under each copy pour a bucket of water. In no case should the soil be dry for the first five or six days. The best option is the landing procedure carried out in rainy weather.
- Soil mulching with dry grass, tree bark, sawdust, sunflower husk.
Amur velvet can be propagated in two ways: by seeds and cuttings.
For sowing take only fresh seeds from ripe fruit. It is very easy to determine their maturity. If you place the fruit in water, oil circles form from a ripe specimen. Sow freshly harvested seeds before winter. If sowing is planned for early spring, they should undergo a preliminary stratification for three months. It is aged in cool conditions (in the cellar or in the refrigerator) until germination. If such a procedure has not been carried out, then pre-soaking of seeds in hot water will do. This is done three or four days before sowing. Then they are placed in the ground at a depth of 2-3 cm. Seedlings will grow better if the soil is first fertilized with potassium permanganate or phosphate fertilizers. In the future, it is necessary to loosen and mulch the soil, regularly water this area, weed weeds.
Germination in Amur velvet is from 60 to 80%, which is a very good indicator.
Cuttings cut in spring. For a few weeks before rooting, they are instilled in moist soil. This is not a very popular method, because root scions do not have a high rooting rate.
While young fellodendron is to be carefully and carefully looked after. But for an older and stronger specimen additional attention and care are no longer required.
- Amursky velvet should be watered frequently and abundantly. Especially if dry periods occur.
- So that the soil does not dry out the area can be mulched wood chips or peat. Another option is to plant lawn grass nearby.
- Top dressing is carried out in the spring. Suitable fertilizers are ammonium nitrate, urea, mullein.
- In the same period, pruning of dried branches is done.
- The plant has a thick cork layer, so the whitening of the stem is not needed. He is not afraid of the spring sun.
- It is frost-resistant, well transfers cold winters. Shelter for the winter period is required only for seedlings. Pristvolny circle closes fallen leaves. The barrel is wrapped with sackcloth in one or two layers.
- When damage appears on young saplings — frost livestock, their treatment with any antiseptic is necessary.
In general, the plant is unpretentious. Under the conditions of the city, it easily adapts even to high gas pollution of the air.
Fellodendron is widely used in folk recipes in many countries. For therapeutic purposes, almost all parts of the plant are used. They are prepared by decoctions, infusions and tinctures, ointments. Even in ancient times, the Chinese knew the miraculous power of the Amur cork tree. The chemical composition of phellodendron contains saponins, tannins, coumarins. The leaves are rich in essential oils, flavonoids, phytoncides, tannins.
Preparations made on its basis possess many beneficial and healing properties. They have antimicrobial, hemostatic, antipyretic, hypotensive, fungicidal action.
In folk medicine, the plant is used to treat a variety of diseases and pathological conditions.
- arthritis and arthritis,
- high blood pressure,
- skin rashes,
- acute respiratory viral infections,
At the time of treatment will have to abandon the use of coffee, strong tea, alcoholic beverages. Also, it is strictly not recommended to smoke cigarettes.
Its quality and quantity directly depend on weather conditions. This is due to the fact that the flowering period is very short. With bad weather nectar bees will not be able to collect, and in good weather, Amur velvet will be an excellent honey plant. Velvet honey is considered elite and has a number of unique properties. Among them:
- long shelf life
- low glucose content
- no crystallization.
It is not cheap, but such a price is fully justified by the quality. It is used to treat tuberculosis, raise the body's immune forces and correct hormonal imbalance.
Bark is used as a source of natural cork. It is flexible, eco-friendly, waterproof, has a high resistance to chemical reagents. Valuable material is widely used for industrial purposes. Application options:
- linoleum production,
- wine corking
- manufacture of goods for anglers.
Cork blank for industrial use runs from mid-June to mid-August.
It has a pleasant color and beautiful pattern in all sections. She has excellent technical characteristics:
- does not rot
- easy to process
- shines beautifully after good polishing,
- not damaged by fungus.
Has found its application in the furniture industry.
Amur velvet is loved by landscape designers for its decorative crown. With its pomp and gorgeous look, it is able to decorate any plot or park area. In addition, the plant helps purify the air from bacteria. For this reason, it is highly valued in landscape construction.
Cork tree looks good in combination with barberry, juniper, thuja and other low-growing bushes. To shade the trunk, suitable honeysuckle and currants. Effectively look joint landing with maple, linden, birch and spruce. They have similarities with the fabulous forest.
If you need to transplant velvet, then choose a new plot for it with fertile soil. The best soil for him is fertile loam. Heavy soils are not suitable for this tree. Velvet is resistant to heat, and therefore the course behind it will not be so troublesome.
Immediately select a suitable area for the tree, given the long life and spreading crown. It is not necessary to allocate for it a plot next to which there may be construction. Do not forget about the neighbors - velvet is necessary for the sun.
In the case of a summer transplant, it is necessary to monitor the soil moisture so that the transplanted tree does not dry. The main care in this case is abundant watering and mulching.
Care of trees consists in regular waterings during the droughty period, top dressings. Also carry out and pruning, but with great care. Places cut branches must necessarily handle garden pitch. Usually, a velvet trim is made to give the tree a decorative and well-groomed look. However, gardeners recommend not to interfere with the development of the tree and let it grow independently, without pruning.
Lawn grass should be sown under the crown of the tree, although many gardeners near-stemming circles simply dig and mulch with any substrate. For Amur velvet, mulching and lawn grass are equally good. If you dig up the soil, this should be done twice a year - in spring and autumn to a depth of at least 25 cm.
Preparing for the winter
Be sure to near-stem circles velvet cover for the winter. In order not to hurt the trunk from frost, it is recommended to wrap the young copies with burlap. But if the frost still damages the trunk, then the damaged areas should be treated with an antiseptic and covered with a thick layer of garden pitch. But the older the plant, the easier and better it will tolerate cold winters. Painful care for themselves is required only by young trees, while adult specimens are no longer so whimsical. Since the days of Amur velvet will thank you with magnificent beauty and unpretentiousness.
Growing velvet from seeds
If you decide to grow this majestic plant from a tiny seed, then start by preparing the selected site. Choose a place with fertile soil and dig it deep, surely and good soil moisture. The seeds are planted to a depth of about 2 cm. After you plant the seeds, the landing site should be mulched.
You can take seeds from dried velvet berries, but first they must be stratified. You can simply leave the seeds for the winter in the soil, where they will undergo a natural, natural stratification. You can also sprinkle the seeds with wet sand and put the container in the refrigerator for the whole winter, where they will be stored at a constant temperature.
As soon as the young trees begin to grow, their root system will strengthen and become powerful. Strengthened seedlings will be more resistant to wind and frost, and do not require such painstaking care. The best time to plant velvet is the end of summer or the beginning of autumn.
Amur velvet is a tree with an unusual crown with feathery leaves. This tree grows, as a rule, up to thirty meters in height.
The green leaves of Amur velvet have up to six pairs, which are shaped like a lancet. It should be noted that the leaves have a distinctive feature - a specific and not very pleasant smell, which is noticeable if you rub them a little in your hands.
The trunk of the tree envelops the wrinkled light gray bark, which to the touch resembles velvet. It is worth noting that the bark of the plant is not only used as a therapeutic raw material, it is also a valuable natural material for the manufacture of floats, life belts and vests. And also bark was widely used in the manufacture of building materials.
The photo below shows the Amur velvet its fruits are clearly visible. At first glance, they can be confused with the fruits of plants, known under the collective name of wolfberry. A distinctive feature of velvet is that the fruits of the plant have a spherical shape and are painted black with a clearly visible shiny shimmer. The Chinese call the fruits of this plant "black pearl". After all, if you look closely, you can really see that the berries are very similar to small pearls.
Amur velvet flowers of small size, with petals, painted in greenish color. The flowering period occurs at the beginning of June, and fruit ripening - from August to the end of September. This plant is highly resistant, it tolerates drought, strong winds, cold, and even transplant from one place to another.
Plant reproduction occurs only by seeds. The first shoots after sowing appear within one year. Velvet can be called a long-liver, since it can grow up to three hundred years.
According to scientific studies, it was found that eating the fruits of Amur velvet leads to a decrease in blood sugar levels, which is a key point in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. Eat berries in diabetes on an empty stomach for three or four pieces. They are chewed and swallowed without water or any other liquid. In order to lower blood sugar to the level of the norm, berries should be taken daily for six months.
Apply berries Amur velvet in the treatment of colds and flu. For the treatment of these diseases, one fruit per day should be consumed, chewing thoroughly for several minutes. After taking velvet berries, it is not recommended to drink water for six hours.
To reduce blood pressure, fruits should be taken daily one thing at a time thirty minutes before meals. In addition, regular use in a small amount of these fruits improves metabolism and normalizes the pancreas.
The benefits of bark
Medicinal properties of Amur velvet in folk medicine are used to relieve inflammation and as a febrifuge. It copes with the treatment of inflammatory processes in the colon and dysentery. For the treatment of infectious hepatitis, exhaustion, pleurisy and lung diseases, the bark is used together with velvet leaves.
Broths from the bark are widespread in Tibetan traditional medicine. Healers recommend their use in polyarthritis, kidney disease, allergic dermatitis, as well as those people who suffer from lymphadenopathy.
The use of Amur velvet is possible as an analogue of the popular disinfectant called Ravinol. For the treatment of surgical wounds, 100 grams of bark should be infused for two days in half a liter of purified water, then boiled. After the agent has cooled, five grams of novocaine and fifteen grams of boric acid are added to it, after which the resulting agent is re-boiled for ten minutes. Next, you should dip the gauze in this infusion and put on the wound. This medicine promotes rapid healing and disinfection. Однако самостоятельно назначать себе такой аналог не стоит, лучше всего перед применением проконсультироваться с лечащим врачом.
The leaves of this wonderful plant have anthelmintic, anti-rotten and anti-microbial properties. Therefore, they are widely used in the prevention and treatment of parasites.
Infusion of the leaves of the Amur velvet is taken to improve digestion and normalize metabolism. To prepare it, you should take thirty grams of crushed dried leaves, fill them with a quarter liter of hot water and insist two to three hours. After the tool is infused, it is filtered and taken before eating one tablespoon. Store this infusion in a sealed container in the refrigerator.
The benefits of honey
Amur velvet is a wonderful honey plant. The main pollinators of the plant are bees, which are attracted by a large amount of nectar and pollen in the inflorescences of the plant.
Amur velvet honey has a dark yellow color with a greenish overflow. This is an excellent alternative to sweets, as it is very pleasant to the taste and has an amazing aroma. In addition, honey does not crystallize and is stored for a very long time due to the fact that its composition contains a very small amount of glucose.
The benefits of such honey is that it is very useful in the treatment of colds, flu, lung diseases, including tuberculosis. Representatives of traditional medicine recommend to consume one dessert spoon of such velvet honey to prevent many diseases and strengthen the immune system.
Reviews of patients and doctors
Reviews of Amur velvet (berries, bark, leaves and bast) as a medicine are completely different. Some people argue that this is a magnificent and miraculous tool, while others say that it can serve only as an aid. Most of the feedback from people who have ever taken Amur velvet comes down to the fact that it cannot be used as monotherapy.
Doctors speak about this tool more positively. Many endocrinologists prescribe this tool as an additional source of nutrients. However, doctors strongly recommend that you agree to take this natural medicine with professionals in advance and use it with great care.
Preparation of raw materials
Fresh, this medicinal plant is not used, velvet derivatives are considered ready after they have been collected and have undergone the drying procedure. Berries are harvested when they have probably ripened, as a rule, this period falls on mid-September. The harvest of berries is dried in dry and sunny weather outside under the bright light of the sun, and then moved into the shade and dried in the open air.
The leaves should be harvested a little earlier than the fruit, at the moment when they have the highest concentration of beneficial substances. This period falls on the end of July. The leaves are cut off, cut and spread with a thin layer to dry. Preparation of the bark should occur in the spring, it is carefully cut off and dried a little outdoors or indoors with good ventilation.
Summing up, it is worth noting that such an amazing plant as Amur velvet is a unique tool for the treatment of various diseases and their prevention. It can be used to supplement any therapy, which will significantly shorten the period of treatment and contribute to a speedy recovery. However, like any other natural medicine, this plant should be taken with great caution, since at high concentrations it can have the opposite effect on the body.