Dwarf fruit trees have always been of particular interest to gardeners. This is easily explained - a rich harvest can be gathered from a relatively small tree. Perhaps one of the best representatives of such crops is the Bratchud apple tree, which gives the gardeners juicy, fragrant and very tasty fruits.
History of the variety
The full name of the variety - Brother Wonderful, and the abbreviated name - Bratchud appeared a little later. Dwarf apple tree of winter maturity, was bred by experts of the Research Institute of Horticulture of the city of Chelyabinsk. The variety was obtained during the crossing of a Vydubetskoy weeping and Ural winter hybrid.
The undersized apple Bratchud was bred thanks to the hard work of the breeders of the Mazunins and Putyatin. The variety was successfully zoned in 2002. Despite the fact that the first samples of the new plant were initially planted in Siberia and areas of the Southern Urals, sometime later they were successfully grown in other regions of Russia - in the Altai Territory and in the north-west of the European part of our country.
The apple tree Bratchud is called a natural dwarf. It has a flat-round crown with a diameter of about three meters. The height of the tree does not exceed two meters, if we are talking about a plant on clonal rootstocks. Using a seed stock, it is possible to grow apple trees up to 2.7 meters high. On the main shoots and trunk, the color of the bark is dark brown. True, it depends on the growing conditions of the tree. In some cases, it has a lighter or darker shade.
Fruiting is distributed over all fruit branches, including last year's increments. Young shoots of medium thickness, covered with greenish-brown bark rather quickly grow. Large, oblong-rounded leaves painted in dark green. On their upper part a slight pubescence is clearly visible. The edges of the leaves are jagged.
Apples of this variety are slightly elongated in shape, medium size. They can be ribbed, although their feature is the presence of a side seam. The outer surface of the fruit is dry and smooth, with a slight glossy sheen and the absence of wax. Relatively thin skin is colored greenish yellow with a blurry red blush. The stems are not very long, but rather thick. They are placed at right angles.
In the fully ripened apple fruits of Bratchud, the flesh is snow-white, while in the unripe it has a greenish tint. Pulp coarse-grained, with a pleasant sweet-sour taste, not too juicy. The chemical composition of the fruit includes a number of useful substances: titratable acids, sugars, ascorbic acid, soluble solids, pectins. The weight of one apple ranges from 140 to 250 grams. Up to 120 kg of selected fruits can be harvested from a single tree. Regular annual fruiting occurs in the fourth year after planting.
Apple-tree Bratchud perfectly tolerates severe frosty winters, when the thermometer drops to -40 ° C. The main advantage of the variety is the possibility of winter storage of fruits for a long time. In the description of the Bratchud apple tree, the creators of the variety guarantee 140 days of fruit preservation, but on condition that they are placed in wooden boxes with holes immediately after harvesting and placed in a basement with air temperature not higher than + 15 ° C.
Another feature of this variety is the intolerance of the neighborhood with potatoes during storage, so the boxes with the fruit must be in different parts of the basement.
Selection of seedlings
In addition to the traditional rules for the selection of planting material of fruit trees (selection without signs of disease, damage, etc.), dwarf varieties also have some indicators of the quality of seedlings. Buying a young plant in the nursery, you can be sure that before you really Bratchud apple tree. In markets or fairs, the situation is different, and you may well buy an ordinary apple tree instead of the desired variety. To exclude this option, looking at the plant, pay attention to the area located between the root collar and the stem of the seedling: a knee-like protrusion should be clearly visible on the dwarf rootstock, which indicates vaccination.
A two-year-old sapling has at least four well-formed branches with large buds - in the wilderness there are many sharp branches without buds. The root system of the selected plant should be formed from a variety of small and elastic roots. Rod-shaped roots indicate that you have a wild apple tree.
Choosing a place on the site
Like most dwarf varieties, Bratchud apple tree prefers elevated, sheltered from the wind, which are in the open sun or in partial shade. Preparation for planting can be divided into two stages: site treatment, inspection and treatment (if necessary) of the seedling. We will understand the subtleties of each of them in more detail.
If you are going to plant an Bratchud apple tree in spring, then you should start digging the soil and its fertilizer in the fall. Remove all leaves and plant parts from the site, dig up the ground and add a little mineral or organic fertilizer (depending on the composition of the soil).
In the spring, one month before planting, dig a square hole, measuring 1.5x1.5x1.5 m and place humus or peat on its bottom.
The best time for planting Bratchud apple trees is spring, but this does not mean that you will not be able to plant seedlings in the fall. However, in this case, the event should be held before the onset of the first frost, so that the plant has time to settle down.
Twenty-centimeter upper layer of soil from the landing pit is removed to the side. It can be used to prepare a nutrient substrate. Connect the earth with two buckets of peat or humus, add 600 g of superphosphate and 700 g of wood ash. After stirring the prepared substrate, it is poured into the hole, driving its stake into the center. You will have a mound on which the seedling will be placed.
Plant roots must be straightened well, and after that, fill the hole with the rest of the soil. Please note that after planting, the vaccination site should be located 3 cm above the soil level. Condense the soil around the young plants and make a roller out of the ground. Its height should not exceed 15 cm, departing from the trunk 0.5 m. The young tree is watered with 30 liters of water. After it is fully absorbed, mulch the site with peat and humus, a layer of not more than three centimeters, but in such a way that the mulch does not come into contact with the tree trunk. Sapling tie to the stake.
After planting the Bratchud apple tree, another task arises before the gardener: it is necessary to provide proper seasonal care for the young plant. Before the start of fruiting, the seedling is watered periodically, but not more often than five times a year. Under each young tree pour in five buckets of water. After the liquid is absorbed, it is necessary to loosen the soil in a circle of pristvolnom.
In very hot periods and in preparation for winter, tree trunks mulch to prevent excessive evaporation of moisture and protect the root system, even frost-resistant apple from freezing. For this you can use sawdust, peat, mowed grass.
Naturally, every gardener, planting a tree, wants to get abundant crops. For this, watering alone is not enough. The Bratchud apple-tree is fertilized three times per season with organic fertilizer: infusion of chicken manure (1:20), infusion of mullein, which is diluted in water in the ratio of 1:10. In addition, organic supplements also include:
- pigeon droppings
- fish and bone meal,
- potato peelings,
- egg shells,
- tobacco dust,
- onion peel.
After three years, trees can be fertilized with solutions of mineral fertilizers. In the spring it is nitrogen-containing or complex compounds.
In autumn, fertilizing apples with fertilizers should not contain nitrogen, because it causes the active growth of new shoots, which delays the preparation of the tree for the winter. At this time, the culture most in need of potassium and phosphorus. To feed 1 square meter of soil you will need to dissolve in a bucket of water 1 spoon (table) of potassium and 2 tablespoons of double superphosphate.
For a dwarf apple tree, Bratchud pruning is necessary not so much for sanitary purposes, as for the uniform distribution of fruits, as well as for the removal of weakened shoots. In addition to too long damaged branches, it is also necessary to remove weak stock. This allows you to thin the crown.
Sometimes gardeners remove the upper buds so that the middle ones develop better. Formative pruning of the apple is carried out twice a year: in the fall and in the spring.
Apple Tree Bratchud: gardeners reviews
Most gardeners of the northern regions and the middle lane are satisfied with Bratchud apple trees. According to reviews, this small tree that does not require complex care, after three years pleases with good and stable crops. Fruits that have a pleasant aroma and sweet-sour taste can be consumed fresh, and you can also make delicious compotes, jams, and jams from them. In addition, apples of this variety are preserved almost until the new harvest.
Despite the numerous advantages of the variety, the most main disadvantage Consider the small life of the fruit crop.
After 18 - 20 years, the fruiting of the apple tree ends and it should be replaced.
The tree itself is small in size, and the productivity is more than enough. The apples are very tasty, fragrant, with characteristic sourness. Every year I prepare several liters of stewed fruit, jam, jam, jam.
And the good preservation of the fruit allows us to enjoy them fresh until the New Year. ”
In time, I became convinced of this myself. Fruit culture, despite its size, has a very high yield. Fruits are medium - large, with very high taste indicators.
Fresh apples are stored for a long time, up to 5 months. In the care of the plant is not whimsical, never spent feeding and trimming. The only care is to treat pests. ”
The tree is very compact, does not take up much space in my small area. The first fruiting, to my amazement, began in the first year after planting. There were really few apples, only 4 of them, but the following year they turned out to be much more.
I would like to characterize the fruit crop from the best side. Apple tree pleases not only by its high yield of tasty fruits, but also by its decorative appearance. ”
In the absence of fertile soil, humus and peat are added in equal proportions to the pit at the rate of 50 cm x 50 cm.
Next to the pit drive a peg, a sapling is placed next to it and buried in the ground.
When landing do not bury the root neck. After the work, the tree is poured abundantly with water.
Varietal characteristics of the cultivar
Mikhail Aleksandrovich Mazunin and his wife Nina Fedorovna in collaboration with other breeders of the South Ural Research Institute for Horticulture and Potato Production made a real breakthrough in the selection of fruit crops.
The basis of the work is taken dwarf tree shape with a spreading drooping crown - Vydubetskaya weeping. M. Mazunin brought the pollen of this natural stanza from Ukraine. The culture settled down in the Urals, and after entering the fruiting period, it became a donor for the production of low-growing frost-resistant cultivars. By crossing the stanza with a complex hybrid of apple trees, the Uralskoye winter variety has developed an apple variety called Brother Wonderful. Characteristics of fruit crops allowed to safely recommend an apple tree for cultivation in all climatic zones of Russia. After variety testing in 2002, the variety was entered into the state register under the name of Bratchud (Brother of the Wonder).
Culture tests were carried out in the Urals and Siberia, where trees showed endurance, a high threshold of frost resistance, excellent yield. For these regions Bratchud fits perfectly.
Culture inherited signs of Vydubetskaya weeping. Trees are formed stunted in the form of a natural stanantsevoy form characteristic of Mazunin apple trees. Bratchud is a dwarf apple tree. When using seed rootstocks, the growth of adults does not exceed 2.5-2.7 m, the height is reduced to 1.5-2 m on clonal rootstocks. At the same time, the diameter of the flattened round crown reaches 2.5-3 m, which is typical of stanians. The drooping dark brown skeletal branches of the word spread over the surface of the soil. The thickness of young shoots is average, the color is brown with a greenish tint. Bratchud bears fruit on all types of wood, including last year's young growths.
The tree is distinguished by large leafy plates of a deep dark green color. The leaves are oblong-rounded with large teeth along the edge. The surface of the plate is covered with a small edge.
The Wonderful Brother is an apple-tree of selflessness. In the neighborhood it is better to land other Mazunin apple trees - Snowdrop, Wonderful, landed, Sokolovskoe. Cross-pollination will increase the productivity of the cultivar.
Variety Bratchud is famous for its elegant fruits. Consider the characteristics of the fruit:
- apples are of medium size, weigh 130-160g. Less common are specimens of small (110 g) and large (250 g) sizes,
- the shape of the fruit is ribbed, elongated, rounded. The presence of a thin strip (seam) on the peel is a varietal sign of Bratchud apple tree,
- there is no wax layer on the smooth peel, but the glossy reflection remains. The skin is dry to the touch,
- The color of the ripe fruit is greenish-yellow. A juicy purple-red blurred tan lining most of the skin,
- fruits firmly held direct fleshy stems. The tendency to fall is missing,
- the unripe fruit on the cut is cast in a greenish tinge, the ripe fruit has a white cut. The texture of the pulp is coarse-grained, the amount of juice is moderate,
- the taste is rated as excellent, very harmonious. Apples are sour-sweet,
- universal use of the harvest - in addition to fresh consumption of fruits, excellent harvesting is obtained (compote, jam, juice, jelly, wine),
- Apples are ready for harvest at the end of September. The shelf is 4-5 months,
- harvest tolerates transportation.
Dwarf Bratchud refers to winter varieties, i.e. the period of consumption falls on winter time.
Advantages and disadvantages of culture
Natural dwarfs compared to tall fellows have a number of advantages. Consider the main advantages of such apple trees:
- precociation - at the time of fruiting the culture enters 3-4 years after vaccination. If you plant two-year-old seedlings, the first fruits will appear on the branches in 1-2 years,
- high productivity - despite the low growth nature of the apple tree, the Brother of the Wonderful Yield per adult tree will be 100-120 kg, which is considered a very high indicator
- the frost resistance of the crop is high enough, but there are certain nuances of cultivation,
- small dimensions - it is easier to harvest the crop from a short growing tree, to take care of the crown. Attracts gardeners and the possibility of compacted planting, because dwarfs need a smaller area of food for each individual,
- lack of sensitivity to close groundwater occurrence — the roots of tall fellows penetrate deep into the soil, where they begin to rot when they encounter an aquifer. The root system of stunted trees lies close to the ground surface,
- a small food area - a typical apple tree, depending on its size, requires a food area of 20-40 m2, while the dwarf will need only 8-9 m2. This characteristic affects the budget savings, because the cost of feeding will be reduced several times.
Is it worth repeating that the fruits of a miniature apple tree are not inferior in quality to the best tall congeners. The combination of a bright outfit, excellent taste, long-term keeping quality, marketability and transportability - the advantages of the dwarf variety Bratchud.
Disadvantages of garden dwarfs:
- short period of active fruiting. A tiny apple tree begins to produce a harvest earlier than a tall one, but lives only 15-20 years,
- unstable root system. The roots of dwarfs live very close to the surface of the earth, and the branches spread far. When overloading the crop, the tree may fall, therefore it needs a good support,
- variety description Brother Chudny indicates a high percentage of scab damage under adverse conditions. Cool rainy summer triggers the development of fungus,
- the need for winter shelter (for regions with little snow in winter). This feature is associated with close bedding of roots that are at risk of freezing,
- The quality of the fruit is affected by the temperature regime - prolonged drought and low air humidity leads to a deterioration in taste characteristics.
Despite the visible disadvantages, fruit growers leave positive feedback on the cultivar. Dwarf trees - the perfect solution for laying a garden on a small plot.
Where to buy and how to pick up planting material
Experienced fruit growers recommend beginners to rely on the following rules for purchasing seedlings:
- buy plants in nurseries,
- возраст яблони 1—2 года гарантирует быструю приживаемость,
- корни здорового материала упругие, увлажнённые, без наростов и повреждений, корневая мочка хорошо развита,
- Second-order shoots are covered with smooth bark and large buds,
- a healthy plant has no signs of damage by pests, areas affected by the disease,
- between the root neck and the trunk is located inoculation in the form of influx.
In the nursery, you can ask for a certificate for the plant, in which all data of the seedling is indicated - the period of budding, the characteristics of the stock, the grade, the date of planting.
Only careful care and proper landing Bratchudnogo extend the period of tree productivity. The following rules will help grow a healthy tree:
- Apple trees are planted in early spring before the beginning of the movement of vegetable sap or in the autumn 2 months before the first frost. The first option is preferable for regions with an unfavorable climate, and the second is suitable for the South of Russia.
- Natural dwarfs are suitable areas on high ground, well lit throughout the day. It is important to protect fragile twigs from strong winds.
- Culture prefers rich in organic matter, light substrates with a weakly acidic or neutral environment. Black soil and light loam are suitable.
- The pit for planting is prepared in 2 months during the fall planting and in the fall during spring. Dig a plot with organic fertilizer (if the soil is poor), remove the weeds. The depth and width of the planting pit is 0.7–1.0 m. The step between the plants is 3–4 m.
- The hole is filled with soil nutrient from garden soil, humus, sand. To the substrate add a complete mineral complex, wood ash. When the apple seedling is planted, it is observed that the level of the location of the root collar rises 5-8 cm above the surface of the hole.
- Variety description indicates the need for tying the culture to the support. After planting, the soil is compacted, carry out abundant watering, sprinkle the tree trunks with mulch.
- Apple tree watered 5-6 times during the growing season. For each year of the plant's life, 10 liters of warm water are required. One day after irrigation, weed vegetation is removed, the soil is loosened and mulched. In the absence of natural precipitation, watering is carried out more often.
- Pruning weak, damaged, old, dried shoots is carried out every spring to the active sap flow. Sections are treated with a solution of copper sulfate, garden pitch.
- Since an apple tree of the Bratchud variety is at risk of being infected with scab, three times in the spring with an interval of 10-14 days are sprayed with copper-containing preparations or fungicide solutions.
- Cultivation of crops involves the annual application of organic and mineral fertilizers. Top dressing bring in a year after disembarkation. In the spring, the tree needs nitrogen-containing fertilizers, a mullein infusion, and urea. Before flowering potash supplements are useful, and by the end of summer phosphate fertilizers are applied to the aging of the wood.
- So that the tender roots of the culture do not freeze in winter, the near-stem space is mulched with humus to a height of 15–20 cm. The shtamb is wrapped in a breathable material (agrofiber, sacking). To protect against rodents, spruce paws or a special mesh are attached to the trunk.
If you follow the agrotechnical rules, the apple variety Bratchud (Brother of the Miraculous) will bring a rich harvest of tasty fruits that will remain fresh until the end of winter.
The history of the appearance of the variety
Apple-tree Bratchud is an achievement of Chelyabinsk selection and was obtained as a result of the crossing of varieties Ural Winter and Vydubetskaya Weeping. The variety was bred in the South Ural Scientific Research Institute for Horticultural and Potato-growing Chelyabinsk, popularly called the apple-dwarf tree MA Mazunin. Since 2002, Bratchud has been divided into regions of the Urals and Siberia.
Many are surprised by the rather strange name of the variety, in fact it is an abbreviation of its full name - Brother Wonderful. Apple Tree Wonderful also belongs to undersized varieties bred by the breeder Mazunin.
Apple Tree Brother Wonderful - an excellent material for breeding culture, so it is used in the breeding of individual subspecies: dwarf, super dwarf, creeping, naturally-low apple.
Since Brother Wonderful was bred in order to create the most winter-hardy apple tree, he is distinguished by a high frost resistance of the shoots and vegetative parts. When the air temperature in winter is below 40 ° C, only the root system can freeze over. The roots lie too close to the surface of the earth, therefore the tree trunk should be warmed for the winter.
Bratchud is a natural low-growing apple tree, so its height does not exceed 2.7 m. Depending on the stock system, it can only reach 2 m. up to 3.5 m. The bark of skeletal branches is dark brown, the shoots are lighter with a green tint. The leaf plates are large, dark green, oblong, slightly down.
Fruits of the Wonderful Brother ripen at the same time, while their size can vary between 110-200 g. The background color of the fruit is yellow-green, covered with a diffuse reddish-pink blush. The skin is smooth, glossy, without bloom. The flesh is white, incredibly juicy, grainy, sweet-sour aroma is weak. The tasting score of Bratchud apples is 4.7 points.
Pay attention! Bratchud fruits can be distinguished from other varieties of apples by their characteristic side seams.
The fruits are also characterized by high commodity qualities - keeping quality and transportability. Apples with timely collection and ensuring proper storage conditions (air temperature should be within 3-7 ° C) are up to 5 months.
An adult tree has a reliable, stable yield. With one specimen with minimal care, you can collect 120-150 kg of large, delicious apples. Apple dwarf Bratchud begins to bear fruit for 3-4 years. Its main advantage is the lack of periodicity of fruiting - it is harvested from the crop annually.
Apple Bratchud is a cross-pollinated cultivar, so it needs a pollinator to set fruit. Some pollinators are capable of increasing tree yields. These include the following apple trees: Snowdrop, Wonderful, Sokolovskoye, Zaslelennoe.
Important! Bratchud, like other dwarfs, has a short cycle of fruiting (compared with the usual varieties) and in 20 years ceases to produce fruits at all.
After acquiring an apple sapling, Bratchud needs to be planted properly, as well as to provide competent care, and in a few years he will delight his first crop.
Wonderful's brother can be planted in spring with sufficient warming of the soil (planting is carried out from early April to early June, depending on the type of root system and region of the country) or in autumn, in late September.
A shallow planting hole 50 × 50 cm in size is dug under the tree, a nutrient mixture of humus and peat, taken in equal quantities, is brought into it and a support is established. After carrying out all the preparatory operations, the Bratchuda sapling is placed in a pit, gently straightening the roots.
Important! In no case should the root neck be immersed in the ground. It should be noted that after watering the seedling can go deep in the planting pit, so it is planted a little above the ground level on a kind of knoll.
Since this apple tree needs pollination, while it has a spreading horizontal crown, it is recommended to plant it at a distance of at least 3 m from other trees and shrubs.
In order for the Bratchud sapling to settle down and quickly adapt to the new conditions, you need to perform several standard measures for the care of a young plant.
- Watering. After planting before the start of fruiting, Bratchuda watering is carried out once every 2 weeks, pouring 20 liters of water under the tree.
- Mulching of the tree trunk will reduce the growth of weeds and prevent rapid drying of the soil.
- Top dressing. The first Bratchud dressing should be carried out only 2 years after planting with the application of complex mineral fertilizers.
- Crop. The formation of the crown has a positive effect on yield. The first pruning is shortening shoots by 1/3 the length. The thinning of the crown is carried out annually, since the branching of the tree leads to its thickening. In order for strong processes to develop well and quickly, the weak ones must be removed every year.
Advantages and disadvantages
The list of advantages of Bratchud is rather long:
- high annual yield even in conditions of short summer and adverse weather,
- taste and commodity qualities of fruits,
- frost resistance of the tree, which allows growing large apples even in cold regions of the country,
- short stature, easy to eat apples,
- no breaks in fruiting,
- long storage periods, allowing to give fresh apples from our own garden to the New Year's table or use them until the end of winter,
- the versatility of using apples in fresh or processed form.
This apple can be divided into two significant drawbacks:
- moderate resistance to fungal diseases
- reduction in the quality of apples with stable hot weather.
Bratchud apple varieties will be an excellent choice for a small garden plot located in an area with a cold, unfavorable climate. With its low growth, it will please a high yield of incredibly tasty and large fruits, suitable for long-term storage.
Apple Tree Bratchud has many advantagesthat are so appreciated in gardening.
Its fruits are not only characterized by excellent taste and consumer qualities, but also by long-term keeping quality.
With the observance of the entire planting technique, agricultural technology, pruning, apple not only take root in any territory of Russia, but will annually please with its decorative appearance and yield.
Region of growth and distribution
The first apple trees of this variety were planted in areas South Ural and Siberia. Subsequently, the variety was adapted for areas Altai, regions of the European North-West.
According to its characteristics can grow in all regions of Russia.
Winter hardy tree. Maintains frosts to -40 degrees. Winter-hardy varieties also include: Veteran, Winter Beauty, Moscow Late, Orlovskoye Polesye and Ostankino.
Planting and care
Planting apple varieties Bratchud is made standard, as with other species.
The best time to plant an apple of this variety ─ Spring. If there is a need to plant an apple tree in the autumnthen it is worth doing no later than the end of September ─ the beginning of October.
Ideally, the apple tree should be planted on fertile soil, then a good harvest is almost guaranteed.
But bratchud grows and bears fruit and on sandy and clay soil. It is better to choose for it protected from the wind areas of the garden.
Pit for landing do square, half a meter wide and deep. At the bottom of the pit is to lay peat or humus.
The distance between the apple stand up to 3 meters.
Before planting the roots carefully straighten.
The seedling is placed in a hole and buried. to the vaccination site. After landing, pour three buckets of water.
The first time after planting the apple tree Bratchud needs good watering every two to three weeks until the end of summer.
Before fruiting an apple tree watered three to five times a year, at a time up to five buckets of water. Three years after planting, the apple tree is watered with a solution of mineral fertilizers. The soil under the apple tree is weeded and loosened.
The root system of such apple trees is close to the surface of the earth, and therefore they need shelter for the winter.
It helps to winter without damage. If the Bratchud apple tree grows on the plot with high groundwater, then prewinter watering should not be carried out.
Dwarf Apple Bratchud need pruning, thanks to which the fruits are placed on the crown of the tree evenly. This is also necessary for the removal of weak shoots, so that the apple tree does not spend forces on them.
When pruning removed long weak branches and stock, thin out excess density, but at the same time on the crown do not leave empty places.
It is recommended to trim the upper kidneys.leaving for quality development are average.
This is done in the spring, but grown at the base of the tree.
Diseases and pests
Tree can be hit scab. Its disputes are easily carried by the wind. It can be detected by examining the leaves from all sides.
If there are oily bright green spots on the reverse side, which may eventually turn brownish-olive, then this means that the tree is affected by scab.
For the prevention of defeat scab apple sprayed with 3% Bordeaux liquid early spring, then spraying can be repeated at the stage of buds. After harvesting you need spray tree with 5% urea.
Methods of treating an already affected tree depend on the period at which the infection began:
- during the blooming of the kidneys sprayed with 3% Bordeaux liquid,
- in the period of the appearance of the buds ─1% Bordeaux liquid and copper oxychloride,
- after flowering, one of the fungicide preparations
- after the fruits are collected, a 5% solution of urea.
Do not neglect and prevention against major pests of apple orchards. For example, against a fruit sapwood, apple miner moth, haws, pinworm and silkworms. Which of them are most effective read in separate articles of our site.
The main advantage of the Bratchud variety is its good yield, presentation and high quality of fruits, therefore, these apple trees occupied an honorable place in gardens throughout Russia, along with other dwarfs.
Key Features and Features
One of the advantages of this apple variety is the possibility of their long-term winter storage.
The description of “Bratchud” refers to 140 days of their guaranteed preservation, but only if you immediately after harvest, put the apples in wooden boxes with holes and place them in the basement, where the average temperature is kept at + 10 ... + 15 ° C.
Now let us pay attention to the external features of the trees themselves and their fruits.
The variety “Bratchuda” is also called “natural dwarfs”, with a flat-round crown with a diameter of 2.5–3 m and a height of 2 m (if we are talking about a tree on clonal rootstocks). When using a seed stock, you can grow apples and up to 2.7 m tall.
The color of the bark on the main shoots and shtambe is dark brown, although depending on the growing conditions of the tree it sometimes has a darker or lighter shade. Fruiting is distributed across all fruit branches, including last year's growth.
The young shoots are medium thick, have a greenish-brown color and are distinguished by relatively fast growth rates. Oblong-rounded leaves are large, dark green in color, and slight pubescence is clearly visible on the upper part of the leaf plates. The edges of the leaves have a large-crested serration.
Bratchud apples are medium in size, slightly elongated and can be ribbed, although the main distinguishing feature of such fruits is the presence of a characteristic side seam, in the form of flat ones.
The outer surface of the apples is smooth, dry, with a slight glossy sheen and the complete absence of the usual wax coating. Peel - relatively thin.
The color of the fruit of the variety is greenish-yellow, although almost the entire peel of the apple is covered with a diffuse reddish-purple blush. Thick stalk is not very long and placed at right angles. In fully ripe apples, the pulp has a white color, while in unripe it gives off a green tint. The consistency of the middle of the apple is coarse-grained, not too juicy, sweet-sour to the taste.
Carefully looking at the chemical composition of the Bratchud apple fruit, it is easy to see that they have a whole range of useful components: a sum of sugars, titrated acids, ascorbic acid, pectins, soluble solids.
Apples are great for fresh consumption and for processing into kissel, compotes, juices, etc.
Rules for the selection and purchase of seedlings
In addition to the general rules for the selection of seedlings (the selection of material without signs of disease, damage, etc.), in the case of dwarf varieties there are several other indicators of the quality of seedlings.
Of course, if you buy a young plant in a nursery, then there is no doubt that the Bratchud variety is in front of you, but if the choice of planting material is carried out in market or fair conditions, then you need to be doubly careful not to buy an apple tree instead of a dwarf sapling wow.
To exclude such an option, when inspecting the plant, pay attention to the space between the root neck and the stem of the seedling: there should be a well-marked knee-like protrusion on the dwarf rootstock, indicating vaccination.
A two-year-old sapling usually has at least four well-developed branches with large buds on them. For comparison, the dick can observe many sharp branches without a single bud. The root system of a properly selected plant should be formed by a large number of small elastic roots, but rod-like roots should be avoided, since they indicate that you have a wild apple tree.
Well, if the seedlings sold have certificates of quality - this will be additional evidence of the appropriateness of the purchase.
In contrast to the preparation of the site, a similar process associated with the seedlings themselves, is performed immediately before the planting itself, about a day. Вам нужно внимательно осмотреть саженец (особенно корневую систему) и определить его жизнеспособность.
If the roots are dry, it is advisable to put them in water for 24 hours, although, of course, it would be better if after purchasing the planting material you immediately wrap its rhizome with a damp rag and land on your site as soon as possible. The roots of a suitable seedling should be cut a little before planting in the soil, which will help to form the lower crown shtambur (the next time the growths are cut off after about a year).
Step-by-step process of planting seedlings
The best time for planting apple trees (and the Bratchud variety is not an exception) is considered to be spring, but this does not mean that you will not be able to plant the acquired seedlings, for example, in the fall.
True, you need to do this before the end of September and the beginning of October, so that before the onset of steady frost the plant has had time to settle down.
In the autumn, as soon as the trees begin to dive into a state of rest (usually this happens at the beginning or in the middle of October), you can start organizing the planting place and placing the seedling directly in it.
The upper twenty-centimeter layer of soil from the future pit should be folded to the side, then used to create a nutrient substrate, connecting with 2 buckets of humus (or peat) and adding 600 g of superphosphate and 700 g of wood ash. After thorough mixing, the prepared substrate is poured back into the well, previously driven into the center of the count. As a result, you should have an earthen mound on which the seedling will be located.
At the same time, all the roots of a young plant must be carefully straightened, and then it remains only to cover the pit with the rest of the substrate.
The topmost layer of the mound will be the usual previously abandoned land from the top layer, without any fertilizer. Upon completion of work, the vaccination site should be located three centimeters above the ground level.
Planting the Bratchud apple tree in the spring (the ground should already be thawed out, but the buds on the trees are still closed), all planting activities are performed according to the above scenario, unless you prepare fertilizer in the preparation of the pit in the fall.
Just hammer in a peg, pile in the soil and place a seedling on it, completing the procedure in the same way as in the first case.
For the convenience of harvesting and well-being of apple trees when planting a garden between adjacent plants should be left at least three meters, and between rows - about four meters of free space.
Seasonal care features
After the planting of the “Brother of the Wonder” apple variety, another important task will arise: to ensure proper seasonal care for the young tree.
This is not to say that this process is too different from similar actions when growing other apples, but you should not forget about the characteristic features.
Before the beginning of the fruiting of a young plant, the seedling needs to be watered periodically, but no more than five times a year, pouring in five buckets of water at a time. As soon as the liquid is absorbed, the soil in the circle of the barrel needs to be fluffed, not allowing it to solidify.
In the process of loosening, which, by the way, can be carried out after the rains, it is useful to remove weeds from the ground, drowning the growth of a still fragile tree. During especially hot periods and for the winter, the trunk circles are mulched, which helps prevent excessive evaporation of moisture and protects the root system from freezing. Peat, sawdust or even mowed grass is suitable for the role of mulch.
If you want to get abundant and high-quality yields of apples, then watering alone will not work. Any plant needs periodic supplements to get the nutrients for its growth and development.
In the case of the “Bratchud” variety, it will be sufficient to fertilize the soil with organic fertilizers 2-3 times per season: mullein extract, diluted in water in a ratio of 1:10 or infusion of chicken manure, but already mixed with water 1:20.
Unfortunately, dwarf apple trees suffer from the same ailments and pests as their tall relatives, so there is nothing surprising in the fact that there are often scars on the trees of the Bratchud variety.
The spores of this disease are easily carried along with the wind, and if you look closely at the leaf plates, you will notice them: usually on the back of the sheet there are oily spots of light green color, which eventually turn brown-olive.
In addition, to protect your plantings from diseases and pests will help and autumn processing, which is carried out as soon as all the leaves fall from the apple trees. For spraying using a one-percent solution of Bordeaux mixture or "Nitrafen".
For the dwarf "Bratchud" pruning is needed not only for sanitary purposes, but also for even distribution of fruits and getting rid of weak shoots.
In addition to long withered or damaged branches, the same weak rootstocks are subject to removal, which allows a little thinning of the crown, but the main thing is not to leave completely empty spaces. Gardeners recommend pruning the upper buds of an apple tree so that the middle ones can develop better. Formative pruning of dwarf apple trees is performed twice a year: in spring and autumn.
Protection against cold and rodents
The root system of the dwarf apple "Bratchud" is very close to the ground surface, which means it can easily freeze in cold winters. Therefore, even despite the good winter hardiness of the variety, trees will have to be sheltered for the winter.
Before the cold weather itself (around mid-November), the apple trees are watered again, after which the mulching of the tree trunk is performed. However, if your apple trees grow in areas with high groundwater deposition, then it is better not to conduct such a podzimny irrigation, immediately covering the near-barking circle with a thick layer of compost.
To protect plants from winter frosts and the ubiquitous rodents will have to wrap the tree trunks with one of the available materials: spruce branches, kraft paper or more expensive roofing material, roofing sheets or reed mats.
In addition, special plastic grids, which more reliably protect trees from the annoying attention of fluffy pests, do a good job with the task.
If all the rules for growing a dwarf apple tree are observed, the Bratchud variety will delight you with a bountiful harvest of delicious apples, which can be safely kept until spring. That is, even in winter you will always have fresh fruit.