General information

How can you feed the grapes in spring


The vine is a crop with a well-developed root system. The plant easily tolerates dry periods, since it absorbs easily the available moisture and trace elements from the soil. The organization of the correct mode of watering and making nutrients increases the yield of berries by half.

Methods of watering the vine

Depending on soil moisture, the roots of the plant are in the ground from 1 to 4 meters, but in the absence of rain they can go to a depth of 14 meters. The movement of water from the surface to the roots during watering is rather slow: 30 cm per month. To get the liquid directly to the roots, the grapes are watered in 2 ways:

  • in furrows or trenches,
  • into drainage pits.

Furrows or trenches are dug out to a depth of 20–30 cm and from a trunk at a distance of half a meter. Water or fertilizing contribute directly to the resulting grooves. After full absorption, the furrows are covered with earth and loosened. The disadvantages of this method are high water consumption and over-wetted surface. In the absence of the necessary ventilation, microflora is created for the development of pathogenic fungi.

How to water a vine

Drain pits or holes are made once and used to make water and fertilizing. The advantage is the ingress of water directly to the roots of the plant. Prepare drainage holes immediately when planting a seedling or after as follows:

  1. At a distance of a meter from the trunk, they dig a hole 20–40 cm in diameter and 70–100 cm deep.
  2. 2 layers of 20 cm are laid in the pit: humus and drainage (expanded clay, broken brick).
  3. Install the pipe with a diameter of 4-15 cm and fix it.
  4. The height of the pipe must be such that it protrudes 10-15 cm above the ground.

This method allows you to measure the amount of water and fertilizing for each bush, depending on the variety.

How to plant a grape plant

Types of watering grapes per season

Throughout the year, moisture recharge and vegetative irrigation of bushes are carried out. Separately allocate watering seedlings during planting and the first year of vegetation.

When planting a seedling, water is poured in two stages in an amount of 10-20 liters of water depending on soil moisture in the area. The first time the water is poured into an empty pit. After being completely absorbed, place the grape sapling at the desired depth and cover it with earth, then pour it a second time. When planting in autumn, the water is taken cold, while in spring it is warm.

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The root system of a sapling of the first year is just beginning to take root, and often lies within the planting pit. Therefore, trenches are made at a distance of no more than 30 cm from the shtamba. Water once a week with 10-20 liters of warm water. One month after planting and until August, they water in the same volume 2 times a month.

Vegetation irrigation is carried out several times per season, depending on the grape variety.

Main steps:

  • before bud break,
  • after flowering,
  • after the formation of berries.

Such seasonal irrigation is carried out with warm water in the amount of 5-20 liters per bush with the drainage method and 40-60 liters per 1 square meter with a trench.

Water-recharge irrigation can be autumn and spring. They are carried out in order to accumulate moisture in the soil to maintain the full development of the plant. Watering in the autumn is carried out in a volume of 200 liters per bush, so that the plant can calmly endure cold and frost tests. If there is not enough rain in the fall, the moisture dries out. So at the onset of winter, frost penetrates deep into the soil and injure the roots of grapes. In a rainy autumn, this watering is not carried out.

Spring watering done in the same amount: 200 liters per bush. They are carried out before the start of sap flow with cold water in order to delay the swelling of the kidneys, or with warm water to activate the growth of green mass.

Nutrients needed for grape growth

Fertilizer grapes in the spring - the key to a good harvest in the fall, so this case must be taken with all responsibility. The main goal, which is contained in the feeding of grapes - soil saturation necessary for the growth and fruiting of a plant with substances and trace elements. Consider more:

  • Phosphorus is most important during the flowering period to get more ovaries,
  • Zinc affects the yield of grape plants so-called crop stimulator,
  • Nitrogen is necessary for the formation of healthy shoots and leaves,
  • Boron is brought in so that the berry is sweet,
  • Copper will protect the vine from drought and frost,
  • Potassium is added for accelerated fruit ripening.

We have decided on useful substances for grapes, now we will understand what fertilizers all this contains, when and how they are applied to the soil.

Fertilizers for feeding grapes in spring

Novice growers often have a question: “How to fertilize grapes?” Mineral fertilizers and organic are used for this. From the latter are very effective, such as:

  • Manure is an indispensable tool for grapes that can replace all the fertilizers taken in the world together. It contains absolutely everything necessary for the growth and fruiting of the plant,
  • Chicken droppings - a great folk way of feeding, contributing to the development of the vine. The composition is similar to manure, however, it must be diluted with water due to high toxicity
  • Compost is a great spring dressing, which is easy to prepare and is very pleasant to the grapes,
  • Mulch - improves soil composition, air and water balance, saturates with all nutrients,
  • Siderats are equivalent to manure, restore the structure of the soil and feed all the necessary elements
  • Ash is a very valuable organic fertilizer that nourishes and heals grapes at the same time.

But for more complete fertilizing of the vine in combination with organic substances, mineral fertilizers are used. With the use of chemistry you need to be extremely careful - failure to comply with the ratios of the components can adversely affect the vineyard or even lead to its death.

When to fertilize in spring

The first dressing is done in April, when the grapes are still sheltered from the winter cold. It is necessary to take into account the region where the vineyard grows - the more south the area, the earlier the fertilizer is applied.

The second falls in May, about two weeks before the flowering of the vine.

The third dressing is when the grapes have reached the size of peas. At this time, the grapes most in need of additional nutrients for ripening fruits.

The fourth dressing is carried out at the beginning of ripening berries.

Fertilizer is applied to special holes - grooves, which are made around bushes with a diameter of 1 m and a depth of 40 cm. The solution is distributed evenly into these wells.

Top dressing with organic

It is good to feed the grapes with slurry, which is prepared as follows: a bucket of manure is dissolved in 3 buckets of water and fermented for several days. Then the resulting solution is again diluted with water (1:10) and watered the plant.

If there is no manure, you can use compost. It is easy to cook in your garden. To do this, they allocate a place somewhere in a corner near the fence and put all the organic waste there (sawdust, grass, leaves, potato peelings, etc.). On top of it is sprinkled with a layer of earth, then another layer of plant and food waste, and so on. until a small group of two meters is tall. Do not forget to water it. You can mix waste with lime.

Excellent fertilizer not only for the vine - chicken droppings. Before use, it is diluted with water (1: 2) and insist a couple of weeks. Water the bushes, diluted with water a second time, only in the 1: 5 ratio. One bush will take half a liter of fertilizer.

You can use wood ash or ash from the shell of sunflower seeds. To do this, it is mixed with water 1: 2 and stirring from time to time, leave for 2-3 days. After filtering and add three more parts of water. Such a solution is not easy to feed the young grapes, and when spraying it will also protect it from fungal diseases.

Feed up with minerals

In the spring, one-component mineral substances (superphosphate, ammonium nitrate, potassium salt and potassium chloride) and ready-made complex fertilizers (Kemira, Akvarin, Novofert, etc.) are used as fertilizers for the vine.

At the first top-dressing, such a mixture is used - dry potash fertilizers 30 grams, 40 grams of superphosphate and nitrogenous ones are applied to the pits where the grape busses have been hibernating and sprinkled with earth. There are special preparations for feeding, for example, “Mortar”. It is diluted with water according to the instructions and contribute to the wells, after pouring a bucket of water there. After applying the fertilizer pour a bucket of water again.

For the second feeding this composition is suitable - 30 grams of potash fertilizer. 40 - nitrogen and 50 - superphosphate diluted with water. This fertilizer is well combined with organic matter - a solution of cow dung or chicken droppings, and if you use both together, then mineral fertilizers can be added in 2 times less.

During the third feeding, complex fertilizers are used - 30 grams of fertilizer per bucket of water.

The fourth time the vine is “fed” exclusively with phosphate and potash fertilizers. Potash "chemistry" can be replaced by ash.

The traditional nutrient solution is done like this: for irrigating one plant, take 5 grams of potassium salt, 10 grams of ammonium nitrate and 20 grams of superphosphate.

You will get the best effect if you alternate organic matter with mineral fertilizers.

Additional feeding of the vineyard

For additional feeding of grapes in the spring, a special trench half a meter deep, 0.8 meters wide, is dug out. The trench is placed either in front of the rows, or behind. 4 buckets of humus or manure are added to it, which are then mixed with the ground, and from above they throw the humus over again and level the dug ditch with the remaining earth. This recharge lasts for several years.

Foliar feedings

Addition to root spring dressings of vines are foliar. Useful substances enter the plant not only through the root system, but also through the leaves. Such dressings are carried out by spraying through a sprayer. For spraying, you can use a solution of urea (40 grams), citric acid (20 grams), boric acid (15 grams), iron sulphate (1 gram) in water (10 liters). Spray the plants before flowering and after.

If you are reluctant to prepare such a solution for foliar fertilizing yourself, you can use ready-made preparations like “Kemira” and others. Each preparation is suitable for fertilizing during different periods of plant vegetation. For spraying, a wood ash-based solution, as discussed above, is excellent.

Top dressing with ferrous sulfate is very important for grapes in that it not only nourishes the plants they need for growth, but also protects them from diseases, and the buds of the plant during frosts.

It is desirable to conduct foliar dressings on a cloudy, windless day.

Feeding grapes when planting

Before planting grapes in the spring, a mixture of fertilizers is prepared in a separate container: 10 kg of rotted cow manure are mixed with 200 grams of superphosphate and 250 grams of wood ash. This proportion of components is designed for 1 square. m

Or here's another nutrient option during planting: a hole for the grape bush is filled with peat - 30 kg or 20 kg of compost and rotted manure, 200-300 grams of superphosphate, 40 grams of potassium chloride, 100-150 grams of potash and a couple of kg of wood ash . In poor soil, the amount of manure is recommended to increase to 3 buckets.

When digging holes for planting, they remove the top layer of fertile soil and fold it to the side, then the remaining soil is selected and laid separately from the top layer. All the above-mentioned components of the first or second variant are put into the pit, having previously thoroughly mixed with the specially prepared nutrient soil prepared in advance, adding coarse sand and crushed rubble to the second part of the ground dug from the landing pit. After planting the bush sprinkled with the first part, dug from the landing hole of the earth.

After planting, the ground around the plant can be sprinkled with wood chips, chopped straw and rotted manure. They will play the role of mulch.

Young bushes of the second year of life in May, together with organic matter, make phosphate and potash fertilizer.

How to feed grapes in spring?

Grape bushes in spring

The most important element in the spring for any plant is nitrogen. Therefore, in the spring fertilizer for grapes should be abundant nitrogen, the remaining components are minor, but no less necessary. If you give only nitrogen to the culture, there will be no use for it. So, how to feed the grapes in the spring?

  • In early spring, after the snow melted, and the young vineyard began to grow, you need to make chicken droppings under the bushes. Half a bucket of fertilizer (not diluted) is taken on the bush. It is better to pour it into a trench dug round around each bush. Then the trench is plentifully poured with water (5 buckets / bush) and after soaking up the water is covered with earth.
  • If the vineyard is already “aged” (over 4 years old), it needs more nutrients. Therefore, in early spring, 0.5 buckets of bird droppings, a mullein bucket, 1 kg of ash are taken for it. All this mixes up, is poured with 4 liters of water and infused for 1 week. After the solution is ready, you need to dilute a liter of infusion in 10-12 liters of water, and water the culture. On each bush 2 buckets of the solution are taken.
  • You can use and wood ash. It is mixed with water in a ratio of 1: 2 and infused for 2-3 days. After that, the infusion is mixed with water in a ratio of 1: 3 and watering the grapes. For a bush you need 0.5-1 liter of infusion. It not only nourishes the plant, but also protects it from fungal diseases.
  • If there is no organic fertilizer, you need to know how to feed grapes in spring from mineral substances. 30 g of dry potash mixtures, 40 g of superphosphate and 40 g of nitrogen are taken on the bush. Mix in a dry form is poured into trenches at a bush, and poured with water (1-2 buckets). But if there was a lot of snow and the land was already wet, then it is not necessary to water it, you just need to sprinkle the fertilizer over the ground.
  • Before the appearance of the first flowers it is recommended to conduct foliar feeding. For this, 20 g of superphosphate and 30 g of nitrogen per 10 liters of water are used. Before using the drug, up to 50 g of sugar is added to it so that the substance slowly evaporates from the leaves. Instead, the agents can also be used in the preparations Florovit, Biopon, and Master according to the instructions.
  • In May, bushes can be fed with a mixture of 30 g of potash nitrate, 40 g of nitrogen-containing substances and 50 g of superphosphate. By this time, the leaves should already be quite a lot, so you should take care that the plant has enough strength to form flowers, and then berries.
  • If at the end of spring the first berries (peas) have already appeared, you can feed the grapes with 30 grams of complex mineral fertilizers. This amount is diluted in a bucket of water.

Feed the vineyard in the spring no more than 3 times. The first time is in April, when the shelter is removed, the first swollen buds are shown (the beginning of sap flow). The second time it falls on May - 2 weeks before flowering. The third time fertilizer is applied, a week before the appearance of ovaries (grape peas). But, most often this period falls in the summer, and not in the spring.