Cross hens Isa Brown refers to an egg hybrid. Birds were bred recently, but have already managed to find their fans. Due to the small size they do not need a lot of space, which greatly facilitates the arrangement of the chicken coop, they also eat little, but they give a lot of high quality eggs.
The bill is massive, light in color, closer to gray. The breast is slightly convex, and the stomach is tucked up, the back is straight, located at a slight angle. The tail of the chickens is short, the roosters are also not very big, compared to other crosses. Plumage gentle, soft, but dense, brown or reddish shades.
Breed chickens refers to the direction of the egg. It should be immediately noted that the record indicators of egg production at the cross were not observed. In the year they can produce 300-320 eggs with a dark, hard shell, and therefore, the Shavers in this regard are ahead of them (they have 350 eggs a year).
However, the weight of eggs in Isa Brown is more than in the latter, and can reach 70 grams - these are rather large sizes. Sometimes there are also two yolk testicles. It is also worth considering that the weight of these chickens is much less than many other breeds and rarely exceeds 2.5 kg. The highest productivity is observed during the first 2-3 years of life, and then decreases.
Conditions of detention and feeding
The cross has excellent character. Individuals are calm, friendly, love to move, but do not enter into fights (this is a great rarity). They respond calmly to climate change, but they require certain conditions:
- Coop must be big. On 4 individuals about 1 cubic meter. The room should be clean, dry, no drafts or cold.
- A small coolness is easily tolerated by birds, but permafrost leads to the absence of eggs or frequent diseases of chickens. In winter, the indicator on the thermometer should not be lower than 12 degrees - better is more, and therefore heating should be arranged in the hen house. The temperature of the chicks should be much higher.
- Perches are made at a height of 60 cm from the floor. Lavishly laid with straw. It is advisable for them to choose a dark, cozy place for chickens to rest there. Light is also important. Individuals should often walk, and if it is raining or heavy snow it is necessary to provide them with enough daylight in the hen house with the help of a light bulb. The longer the day lasts, the higher their productivity.
- A couple of times a year you need to do a pest control room for parasites and various viruses.
- For food, you can choose either feed or make food at home. The second option may seem cheaper, but to make high-quality food you need to buy a lot of products: millet 40%, corn 40%, legumes 20%, vitamin and mineral complexes, sand, ground shells, bone meal. If the eggshell becomes thin, you need to urgently add calcium to the feed. You should also give grated roots, with grass and vegetables. All this in a coupe costs about the same as the finished feed.
Of course, breeders and professional breeders recommend feeding chickens properly, balanced, ideally with purchased feed. But in reality this is not always feasible for a number of reasons. And if some breeds react poorly to changes in the diet, the hens of the breed Isa Brown easily tolerate even a small famine. Although this will affect their productivity.
The history of the breed
Isa Brown is a young breed, she is about thirty years old, her parents are Leghorn and Rhode Island breeds, the crossing procedure was linear and took place in four stages. The breed was named after the institute, whose specialists were engaged in breeding it - Institut de Sélection Animale (ISA) .ISA is a subsidiary of a multidisciplinary livestock company specializing in genetics and technology. The institute is located in the Netherlands, with headquarters in Boxmeer, and it has offices in France, the USA, Canada, Indonesia, Brazil, India, and Venezuela.
Description and featuresConsider the distinctive features of the cross.
Sam Iza Brown is easy to distinguish from cockerels even at a tender age: the plumage of hens is of a rich, nut-brown color in hens, yellow color prevails in cockerels. Feathers tightly pressed to the body, at the ends of the wings and tail plumage lighter.
The body of the individuals is not large, with a compact, lightly boned bone, the thoracic part protrudes forward. Long neck smooth bend goes into a straight back, tail raised.
The head is neat, small, a comb and a small beard of medium size, of a pale red color. The beak is strong, yellowish-beige, moderately curved. The paws of the plumage are not covered, the skin on them is yellow.
The weight of females - an average of 1,900 grams, a rooster - 2, 800 grams, egg weight - up to 65 grams.Crosses have an unusually calm and livable disposition. They do not fight, conflicts are not about them at all. Chickens are mobile, they definitely need to provide a comfortable place for walking.
Puberty and egg production
Isa Brown quickly ripen, at the age of four and a half months begin to rush. After a few weeks, productivity reaches its top - 330 eggs per year (average). High rates of egg production crosses demonstrate during the year of life. Then productivity gradually declines.
Hybrids especially need vitamins, so their diet in both young and adult individuals should be varied and balanced.
The first three days of day-old chickens are fed boiled eggs, then mixed feed or crushed grain is added to the ration:
- boiled potato peeling,
- grated beets, zucchini, pumpkin,
- cake and bran,
- steamed granules of alfalfa or greens in summer.
Layers need protein and calcium (chalk, bone meal), this will increase the strength of the shell and the number of eggs in the clutch.
Just hold three feedings:
- in the morning, some time after waking up,
- before bedtime.
Adults also need a wet food with vitamins, the so-called mash, they prepare it from the following ingredients:
- potatoes, greens, shredded roots,
- bran or oatmeal,
- legume seeds,
- sunflower cake, yeast,
- bone flour,
- fodder chalk,
- fish fat,
When building a chicken coop, you need to consider that a company of four individuals needs a space of about one cubic meter. The structure must be protected from drafts, insulated, clean, regularly ventilated.
In winter, it is advisable to provide a safe option for heating, since the temperature below 12 ° C is highly undesirable. Humidity in the room is not lower than 50%.
Layers for productivity need a light day lasting up to 15 hours, it must be provided with lamps. Light sources are located two meters from the floor.
Perches up to forty centimeters wide are placed at a height of half a meter from the floor. The flooring should be dry, from natural materials: sawdust, hay. It should consider the location of drinking bowls and feeders. It is better to cover the latter with a large mesh cage on top, in order to get food it was simple, but it is impossible to get into the trough by scattering the food.Nests should be placed twenty centimeters from the floor. As a nest, you can use a wicker basket or box, covered with hay or straw, as long as there is a depth in it. Usually one nest is arranged for three birds.
They arrange the corral most often from the fine-meshed mesh of the chain-link, right next to the walls of the chicken coop, so that the bird has free access. When arranging a walking yard, it is necessary to provide a shed for a part of the pen and a net from birds of prey, in case of heat. Inspect the fence for the presence of sharp objects and strengthen the surface of the earth: chickens like to break the ground, can dig under the net.
Advantages and disadvantages
Among the significant advantages of such facts:
- rapid maturation,
- good egg production,
- high level of profitability
- resilience - progeny yield up to 94%
- minimum feed costs
- unpretentiousness - chickens are resistant to diseases.
- loss of productivity after two years of maintenance,
- hard meat - chicken meat of two years "rubber" even after several hours of cooking,
- the need for an incubator if you want to grow young.
Production characteristics of Isa Brown
Birds reach sexual maturity at the age of 4.5 months.
The eggs of this cross have a hard brown shell and weigh about 70 grams.
Due to the fact that the hens of Isa Brown belong to the egg breed, they do not reach larger sizes. The maximum weight of the hens is only 2.5 kilograms, and the males - 3 kilograms.
Birds have a good survival rate (more than 90%), but this figure depends largely on the conditions of detention and feeding.
Cultivation and breeding
Chickens Isa Brown are well suited for both cellular and outdoor housing, but it is advisable to arrange walking for these chickens. The floor in the chicken coop is covered with hay, sawdust, straw or peat.
Do not allow drafts and cold in the room where birds are kept. Even in winter time, the temperature in the chicken coop should not fall below 12 degrees Celsius, which means that it cannot do without heating.
The size of the chicken coop should correspond to the number of livestock. For 4 chicken need 1 cu. meter of free space.
I set the perches at a height of 60 centimeters so that the chickens feel comfortable on them to rest and they are not disturbed by foreign objects and noises.
For good productivity of layers, daylight hours are very important. If there is not enough daylight, then the daylight is artificially prolonged with the help of lighting.
It is advisable to buy chickens at specialized poultry farms, as there is a high probability in the market to purchase an unbreeding breed.
When buying young stock you need to carefully look at the beak of the bird.
The breed Isa Brown is prone to such a congenital disease as micromelia. If the bird is sick of this disease, then its beak is similar to the beak of a parrot, and it dies after a few months.
Nowadays, when the number of new breeds of chickens just rolls over, it is very difficult even for an experienced breeder to understand their differences and characteristics.
Therefore, it is difficult to determine what is the difference, for example, Loman Brown from Isa Brown.
Isa Brown is one of the highly productive egg-crosses. Its productivity indicators are such that it is simply not rational and simply impossible to ignore it. Especially the breed will be interesting to those who decided to focus on egg-bearing breeds.
History of occurrence. Parent breeds
This hybrid is bred relatively recently in France. He is only 30 years old. It was named after the place where it was selected. Just reduced the name of the institute to three capital letters, and it turned out ISA. Brown is the color of the plumage of a chicken, that is, brown. The breed has excellent adaptive properties, as well as not demanding conditions of detention.
For breeding, Rhode Island and Leghorn breeds were used. This cross is four linear. The resulting descendants after the first crossing were once again crossed. As a result, this hybrid was obtained.
Exterior and Constitution of the Cross by Isa Brown
Isa Brown's appearance is a kind of standard layer, largely taken from Leggorn:
• small body size,
• light bones,
• brown plumage with a reddish tinge. There are some differences in color,
• small head of the correct form,
• the comb is also small symmetrical to the size of the head,
• earrings are small, dull, red,
• beak is small, beige color with pink tint,
• paws yellow.
Breed has autosex properties. At the age of one can easily distinguish chickens from roosters. Roosters differ from chickens in a lighter shade of the edge.
Productive rock properties
This cross is positioned by breeders as highly productive, not demanding, easily adaptable to various conditions of detention.
• indicators of average egg production fluctuate around 300-320 eggs,
• egg weights are also very good 64 g, the shell repeats the color of layers - brown,
• daily feed demand is 108 g,
• safety of young stock 94%,
• safety of adults 97%,
• The mass of the producer's hen sways in the region - 1.9 kg,
• the period in which the most intensive egg-laying is observed - 17-91 weeks,
• egg production begins at 21 weeks of age. This figure is considered early because the cross can be attributed to the early maturity,
• the greatest egg production is in the first 2 years of life, after which it is recommended to carry out a change of livestock.
The indicators are very good, especially dark-shelled eggs are more valued in the market than with white.
Content Cross Isa Brown
This question will not be a problem for the breeders of this cross, as the miniature layers of Isa Braun are ideal for any backyard and for a large enterprise. You can keep it in the cells, and you can use the floor version. Although if possible, it will be an additional, positive factor of influence on the layer.
Obligatory condition for keeping hens is an extended day length. Each poultry farmer is trying to make it the longest, because you need to provide at least 15 or even 18 hours of light. Recommendations breeders say that lighting should have an intensive performance of at least 3, or even 4 watts per 1 square meter.
Be sure that the room where the livestock is located must be equipped with ventilation. Also be sure the absence of drafts.
Under floor maintenance, litter should be changed regularly and be dry and clean.
Feeding and diet Isa Brown
When feeding, it should be borne in mind that laying hens should be provided with all the necessary substances for creating eggs in your body every day. Therefore, if the farmer does not have his own mill, and in the assortment of various grain crops, it is best to purchase special feed for laying hens.
In order for the chickens to show maximum, peak egg production results, you need to use premixes or special mineral supplements. Especially in cases when feeding is carried out on a house diet.
This requirement is due to the fact that crosses have a specific metabolism. Therefore, without the use of special diets, feeding chickens will suffer from a lack of minerals and vitamins.
Crosses showed excellent resistance to various diseases.
Pros and cons of cross-country Isa Brown
• high survival rates of young and adult individuals due to resistance to various diseases and high adaptability to housing conditions,
• high productive rates. It is especially important that chickens begin to rush early and show high egg production rates for 2 years, while it is recommended to replace the average cross-section of the egg direction after 1 year,
• simplicity in the maintenance of livestock. There is no need for arranging special conditions, and at the cellular content the small dimensions of the chicken do not require the creation of large areas.
• the main and only drawback of this breed is, of course, that the possibility of circular reproduction is absent.
Anyone who decided to use this breed to establish egg production. At the same time, regardless - it will be a small part-time farm or a huge factory. Will be delighted with this hybrid.
Feeding the breed of Iza Brown chickens
Feed cross Isa Brown is recommended with special feed for egg-laying hens. On large poultry farms, in addition to animal feed, birds additionally provide chalk, vitamins and minerals.
Cereals constitute the main ration of the hens. In the daily diet of chickens should be at least 50% of grain crops.
If the grain is not germinated, then it should be given only in a ground form. Crushed corn will be an excellent feed option for both adult hens and young stock. Barley is given in germinated form, because it contains more B vitamins, and millet contains a lot of fiber, and therefore, up to 10-15 days it is given to chickens in the form of millet.
In addition to grain crops, the birds ’diet must include fresh greens, root crops and mineral supplements.
There are no special recommendations for feeding Isa Brown chickens, they need to be fed in the same way as other egg-laying chickens.
History of origin
This hybrid was obtained by crossing two famous breeds - American Rhode Island and Italian Leggorn. Эти породы часто используются селекционерами для выведения новых яичных пород.
Выводили ее нидерландские (голландские) селекционеры. Они и дали ей название, в котором спрятана аббревиатура института. На базе его и были достигнуты успехи в селекции этого кросса. "Brown" is nothing more than a feather color indicator, that is, "brown."
These are typical layers without any special signs, so they are easily confused with other representatives of brown rocks.
Chickens Isa Brown are small individuals with a light skeleton. Thorax noticeably bulges, has a convex shape. The head is a small regular form with a small leaf-shaped scallop and earrings of pale red color. The neck is long with a smooth bend. The beak is strong, massive light brown, closer to the beige shade. The eyes are dark orange in color. Legs are yellow, there is practically no plumage on them. In hens and roosters, the tail is short, raised up.
Feathers are well pressed to the body. The color of females and males differs from each other, so already at one-day age it is easy to say - who is from the brood of the hen, and who is the cockerel. The latter have a brighter coloring, in which there is more yellow. Chickens are darker, they are dominated by brown color. In individuals of both sexes, the tips of the feathers and tail are lighter. If the bird has a white color, the cross is called Isa White.
The nature of the bird is balanced, calm. They easily get along with each other and other breeds. Never enter into conflict situations, do not participate in fights. They are energetic, mobile, so they definitely need to provide a place for walking.
Isa Brown - purely egg breed, with its breeding was the goal - to get a large number of large eggs. On average, hens lay down 320 eggs a year. This is not the highest indicator among hens of an egg orientation, but their eggs differ in big weight. On average, one egg weighs about 62 g, often larger eggs weighing about 70 g are also found. Eggshell is hard, brown, often they are two yolks. At the same time, the chicken is “little one” and consumes about 109 g of feed per day.
If we talk about the quality of meat, then you should not expect much. These chickens are raised only for eggs. Their meat is very cruel and is only suitable for broth. Even long boiling does not save, the meat remains "rubber".
Freshly hatched chickens do not need food for 12 hours. Then for three days they are watered with a slightly pink solution of potassium permanganate and fed with boiled crushed egg. Next, the grain is introduced into the ration in crushed form - millet (source of fiber), corn, wheat and barley, or buy ready-made mixes. The younger generation is regularly fed with cottage cheese, yeast and fish oil.
Install drinking bowls. In one they pour pure water, in others milk. Grown up youngsters are given a mash of potato peel (boiled), grated zucchini, pumpkin or root crops, bran and steamed alfalfa seeds or fresh greens in the summer.
Feeding of hens
Experts say, you want more productivity from layers - feed them with specialized industrial feed for eggs of an egg orientation, additionally introducing vitamins and minerals. In addition, enough protein and calcium are needed for the hens to increase egg production and durability of the shell. But not everyone has the opportunity to buy ready-made mixes. Therefore, when feeding should follow several rules:
- The basis of the diet - grain (the share of grain crops in the diet should be 50%).
- Dry grain must first be crushed to medium or coarse fraction.
- Whole grains are used in germinated form. It is better to use barley for these purposes, since it contains various B vitamins.
- The remaining 50% of feed comes in fresh greens, mineral and vitamin supplements, vegetables and mash - wet food with the addition of vitamins.
Blend kneaded on cottage cheese, yogurt or meat broth. It consists of fresh grass, roots and potatoes, grain, bran and leguminous seeds. Be sure to add yeast, salt, fish oil and bone meal.
It is easier to cook the mash with greens if there is a grass chopper on the farm. How to build such a unit yourself - read here.
Give it in a freshly prepared form, and after a few hours the remains are removed from the feeders. However, it is not necessary to overfeed the hens, they begin to grow fat, which, first of all, immediately affects productivity. Food is given in the morning, after awakening of the birds, and it is better to feed them with mash to get enough energy for the whole day, the second meal - in the afternoon and the third before bedtime.
You can read more about the proper diet of laying hens here.
Newly purchased chickens are placed in a warm place, the temperature should be within + 28 ... + 31 ° C. Cold or hot chicks can be recognized by their behavior. If they freeze, they are lumped together, and often weaker individuals are trampled down. If they are hot, they are distributed along the walls of the room.
The light day in the first days should be up to 22 hours with maximum brightness in order to support the need of chickens for water and feed. Gradually, the duration of daylight is reduced to 18 hours for 15-day chicks.
Chicks should have free access to water. Drinkers are carefully washed daily. Unfinished food removed. Chicks are given only freshly prepared food, dry grain should be constantly in the feeder. The room in which young animals are kept must be clean and dry, this helps to reduce the development of infectious diseases of different origin.
With proper maintenance, the safety of young stock has a high percentage of up to 94%.
Shedding and a break in egg production
In the first year of life, the chicks grow actively, so molting occurs three times a year, and this is a normal process:
- For the first time a chicken molts in the fourth week of life. He breaks up with his down and down feathers grow from him.
- In a three-month-old young growth, downy feathers are replaced by contour feathers, and the chick becomes like an adult bird.
- All birds up to one year shed in the spring for the third time.
For the rest of the hens, molting occurs annually in autumn (late October). It is associated with a reduction in daylight and the onset of cold weather. Nature has taken care of her charges, during this period there is a natural change of feathering - old feathers gradually die off and old feathers fall out, and new thicker ones grow.
In healthy chickens, feathers change quickly, and a full update takes 6–8 weeks. They can be recognized by the untidy, “bare” look. Laying birds with egg laying problems start shedding from the middle of summer. This process lasts a very long time, can last up to six months. At the same time, the chickens remain "well-dressed", since they do not lose their thick plumage.
When, as other breeds cease to fully nest, only a decrease in egg production is observed in these layers. Since feathers are mainly composed of proteins, in time of renewal of feathers, the hen's body is very depleted, it loses weight, weakens, the immune system becomes unstable, therefore during this period they are prone to various diseases. A reduction in daylight affects the hormonal system, it fails. Therefore, it is necessary to provide them with good nutrition during this period and to maintain optimal light day.
In the diet during the molting period increase the proportion of protein foods, both vegetable and animal origin. Birds are given soy, fish, worms and insects. If using feed, then go to feed for broilers, as they contain protein content up to 22% instead of 17% for egg breeds.
Birds are also fed foods rich in sulfur - cabbage, peas, alfalfa, dairy products, meat and bone meal. With a lack of this mineral, chickens begin to peck at the feathers, resulting in bleeding that is difficult to stop.
Late molting indicates health problems, improper diet or improper care of the bird.
In addition to the congenital disease mentioned above, birds are susceptible to beriberi. But it must be said that this problem of all representatives of egg breeds, since they, having a high rate of productivity, need an increased amount of vitamins and minerals. With a shortage of vital substances in the body of a bird cannibalism can be observed in the herd.
If we talk in general about the health of layers, they are genetically resilient and strong. But, of course, vaccination and regular treatment of the livestock from parasites will not hurt.
We offer a video with Iza Brown breed chickens:
Many breeders decided to breed popular and productive cross - chickens isa brown description , photos and characteristics which can be found in the article. They are absolutely not picky in terms of care and maintenance, and also willingly eat the various foods offered by the farmer. With minimal investment you can get the maximum profit. Why not start breeding chickens Isa Brown on your farm too?