A pear is a fruit tree, more capricious and susceptible to adverse weather conditions than its related apple tree. In spite of this its fruits deserve recognition and respect from gardeners. This article provides a detailed description of the Belarusian late pear variety.
Description of the pear variety Belarusian Late
Pear - a variety of Belarusian breeding, is a medium-growth tree, attributable to the group of winter fast-growing pears.
Crohn rounded, dense, formed by small, oblong-elliptical foliage. Leaf plates are smooth, have a light green color. On the edge of the sheet - small teeth.Belarusian pear late
Large skeletal branches almost at right angles articulate with the trunk. The ends of the branches rise up. Cranked shoots are moderately thickened and have a light brown color with light pubescence. In the cross section form a circle. The bark of shoots is covered with a variety of lentils.
Small buds, in turn, are not covered with pubescence and have a conical shape. Slightly bent off shoots.
The formation of fruit occurs on kolchatka:
The flower of pear "Belarusian late" white with oval-shaped petals.
The opportunity to harvest the first harvest is already available at 4 years of age. Fruit ripening usually occurs in late September. Pear productivity is high. But the positive impressions of the abundance of crops are reduced by their frequency.
Fruits of the Belarusian Late pear are not distinguished by very large sizes, reaching a mass of only 110 - 120 g. Upon reaching maturity have the correct wide-circle shape. The fruit on the tree is mostly the same size.Fruits pear Belarusian late
The rough, light-colored skin of pears is covered with light brown dots. Color at the time of removal from the tree green, by the time of consumption, acquiring an orange-yellow color. Cover color from red-brown to raspberry shades.
Juicy pears with white pulp of average density. They are distinguished by their oiliness and tenderness. The taste is estimated from 4.2 to 4.4 points.. Fruits are sweet with a slight sourness. Pears of a grade "sit" on the shortened equal fruit stem.
Fruits taken from a tree in the late days of September may be preserved until February, sometimes longer.
The grade "Belarusian Late" is considered self-fertile (self-pollinated), but for more yield, the presence of “Oily” and “Bereloshitskaya” pears is recommended.
Breeding history, region of growth
Pear tree varieties "Belarusian late" refers to the winter varieties of breeding of the Belarusian Research Institute of Horticulture. The variety was obtained by sowing the seeds of uncontrolled pollination of the Kind Louise pear.
The variety was entered into the State Register of Breeding Achievements Allowed to Breeding in the North-West and Central Regions.
The advantages and disadvantages of the variety
The positive qualities of this variety gardeners include:
- Skoroplodnost, that is, getting the first harvest in just 3 or 4 years after planting,
- Long term preservation of fruits (in some cases pears can be stored until April)
- High rate winter hardiness.
The disadvantages of pear:
- Periodism in fruiting,
- Susceptibility scab and bacterial burn,
- Shallowing fruits with large yields
- Periodic trim requirement due to the tendency to thickening the crown.
The most favorable time for landing on the site is late spring.. Three days later, as well as within fourteen days after the snow cover disappears, the optimum time for planting a pear tree. Possible landing in the autumn period: before the first frosts, but after leaf fall.
When choosing a seedling, it is necessary to pay attention to the condition of the planting material. A young tree should have elastic branches and a dense crown with healthy leaves.. In the root system of the seedling should not be dry and dangling roots.The required area for the development of a pear tree - 4x4 m
4x4 meters - the minimum size of the area under a pear tree, which guarantees its normal development. In addition, the pear prefers well-lit places with fertile soils. The soil for planting fruit trees should be well aerated and moderately moist. It is not allowed to plant Belarusian late on soils with regular stagnation of moisture or on too heavy clay soils, which will lead to slow growth and development of the tree. Growth on sandy soils is accompanied by similar symptoms.
- Before planting it is necessary to carry out preliminary soil preparation.. The most suitable substrate for young seedlings is rich in minerals, loose soil.
- Planting pit for the Belarusian Late Pear should be up to 80 cm in depth and 100 cm in diameter. Under the seedlings with a closed root system, the planting pit is prepared according to the dimensions of the earthy coma.
- Planting is carried out in dry, warm weather.. First of all, from a young tree all leaves are removed, and also broken branches and dangling roots are cut off. Before planting, it is necessary to maintain the seedling root system in water for 3 hours,
- In the center of the seat is preparing the holewhere the sapling is installed. At the same time, it is necessary to carefully ensure that the root neck is not buried in the soil - it is optimally placed at a height of 7 cm from the ground level,
- After filling the pit with pre-prepared primer, the landing site is rammed,
- Watering after planting must be at least 30-40 liters per tree,
- After full absorption of moisture, the trunk circle is mulched wood shavings or crushed bark of small fraction.
In a seedling with a closed root system, the roots should be visible in the drainage holes, and a clod of earth thickly woven over with light roots. This indicates that the plant is grown in this capacity. The soil surface in the container should not be covered with moss and weeds.
Before planting a clod of earth should be watered well. Then remove the tree with the soil from the container and place it in the hole. Plants with a closed root system can be planted throughout the season, even in summer. When transplanting the roots are not injured, so the seedlings will quickly take root in the new place.
- Before planting, soak the roots of seedlings in a solution of root-forming drugs Kornevin or Heteroauxin for 6-12 hours.
It is useful to dip the roots of a pear seedling before planting in a soil mash with the addition of growth hormone (Heteroauxin). Due to this, the plant will take root much faster. To prepare such a suspension in a bucket pour the fertile soil and add the drug and water, stirring constantly, until the mixture becomes creamy.
Pear care late Belarusian
Pear care is the formation of crown and sanitary pruning, watering and feeding, preparing the tree for wintering, disease prevention.
The first pruning should be carried out immediately after landing. A one-year sapling is shortened to a height of 60–70 cm. In two-year-olds with the beginnings of skeletal branches, all shoots are cut to 1/3. Pears are not prone to thickening, so further care of the crown is to not let the tree go up. To do this, shorten the central shoot by 1/4, causing lateral branching.
Annually cut branches growing inside the crown, as well as broken, dried, diseased shoots. The growths are shortened by 1/4 length to accelerate the formation of flower buds.
The pear must be regularly irrigated, especially in the first years of the life of the young tree, until the central root has augmented a sufficient number of side roots. It is necessary to water once a week in the morning or in the evening, 1 bucket under the plant. Water is poured into a furrow dug along the perimeter of the rim of the barrel.
With the onset of fruiting in certain periods, the tree requires a greater amount of moisture. The first abundant watering is carried out before flowering. The second - during the setting of the fruit. Pour 2-3 buckets of water under the tree. The older the plant, the more moisture is required for the roots. Currently, the problem can be solved with the installation of drip irrigation.
Pear loves nitrogen more than other pome crops. But it is not necessary to make chemical fertilizers.
In the 1st century AD, the famous Roman philosopher Pliny described 41 varieties of pears. But in those days, except for ash, bone meal, manure and bird droppings, there was no fertilizer. Therefore, this culture is quite enough fertilizing with natural means.
Before the beginning of fruiting, the first two years do not feed the pear. Then you need to fertilize the tree annually. Top dressing should be made after abundant watering of trees.